Mental retardation
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Mental Retardation. By: Jolene Swoverland. Definition. A condition diagnosed before the age of 18 that includes below-average general intellectual function and the lack of skills necessary for daily living Also called intellectual and developmental disability. Causes.

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Mental Retardation

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Mental retardation

Mental Retardation

By:

Jolene Swoverland


Definition

Definition

  • A condition diagnosed before the age of 18 that includes below-average general intellectual function and the lack of skills necessary for daily living

  • Also called intellectual and developmental disability


Causes

Causes

  • Many causes but doctors find a specific reason in only 25% of cases

  • Examples:

  • Infections- meningitis, HIV, rubella

  • Chromosomal Abnormalities

  • Environmental

  • Genetic-PKU, Tay-Sachs disease

  • Metabolic-poorly regulated diabetes

  • Nutritional-malnutrition


Symptoms

Symptoms

  • Continued infant like behavior

  • Decreased learning ability

  • Failure to meet markers of intellectual development

  • Inability to meet educational demands at school

  • Lack of curiosity

  • Learn to crawl, sit up or walk later

  • Learn more slowly


Mild mental retardation

Mild Mental Retardation

  • IQ of 50-69

  • Capable of learning reading and math skills to the level of a child 9-12

  • Can learn self-care and practical skills


Moderate mental retardation

Moderate Mental Retardation

  • IQ 35-49

  • Nearly always apparent within first years of life

  • Speech delays common

  • Can learn simple health and safety skills and participate in simple activities


Diagnosis

Diagnosis

  • Must meet three criteria:

  • An IQ below 70

  • Significant limitations in two or more areas of adaptive behavior

  • Evidence that the limitations become apparent before the age of 18


How needs are met

How needs are met

  • Teachers attend workshops

  • Day camps for disabled children

  • Fully staffed residential homes

  • School programs to help them get a job in the community


Qualifications

Qualifications

  • IQ scores

  • Adaptive functioning-skills needed to live independently

  • Evidence that the limitations become apparent in childhood


References

References

www.health.nytimes.com

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mental_retardation


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