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The Elements &
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In this presentation we are going to explain what is graphic design, what is its scope, and its importance in our day to day life. graphic design scope of graphic design importance of graphic design

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Principles of design

The Elements &

Principles of Design

  • By: ADMEC Multimedia Institute



  • I'm giving you the basic

  • overview about the Elements and

  • Principles of Designing.

  • The presentation will give you a

  • good understanding about the

  • significance, meaning and the

  • types of designing elements and

  • principles .

What are they??

Why they were used??

Significance of the topic

Significance of the Topic

Sometimes we have to give our

opinion about likes or dislikes on a

piece of art or a design, and it’s easy to

say just “ I like this, or I don’t like

that…”. But if we are asked to give the

reasons for it , then it proves to be a

very difficult to find out the reason.

This generally happens because we

judge the designs on its appeal rather

than on its articulate sub-factors.

Therefore it’s imperative to know the

meaning and the types of the designing

elements and principles.

Can you evaluate this piece of art???

Principles of design

A designer can express his thought & intentions with the elements of design and does it effectively along with the design principles, i.e. they serves as an expressing tool for designers.

Designer who knows the design Elements & Principles can evaluate

the design/page in terms of line, color, balance, texture, etc.

Designing Elements and Principles proves to be an analyzing frame for

the designers.

Now, let us discus these Elements & Principles!!!

Principles of design

  • Elements

  • Of

  • Design



“Elements of Design are the components or part which can be isolated & defined in any visual design or work of art. They structure and carry the work.”

Basic elements of design

Basic Elements of Design

  • Following are the seven basic elements of design which are common throughout the field of designing.

  • Point / Mark

  • Line

  • Shape

  • Forms

  • Space

  • Color

  • Texture

Can someone tell us about the Elements of Design???

Principles of design

Point (Mark)

  • A point or mark is the smallest and most basic element . It can vary in size, value, regularity or irregularity, and can be used alone as a unit in a group.

  • Marks can be used to form a value or pattern ( placed close together forms a darker value, further apart forms a lighter value), or to delineate space ( larger means closer,etc.)

Principles of design


  • A line is a form with width and length, but no depth.

  • Artist use lines to create edges, the outlines of objects. The direction of a line can convey mood.

  • Broadly lines can be categorized into three types

  • Horizontal

  • Vertical

  • Diagonal

Principles of design

Example of Horizontal Lines

  • Horizontal lines are calm and quiet.

Principles of design

Example of Vertical Lines

  • Vertical lines suggest more of a potential for movement.

Principles of design

Example of Diagonal Lines

  • Diagonal lines strongly suggest movements and give more of a

    feeling of vitality to a picture.

Principles of design


  • Shape is defined as an area that stands out from the space next to or around it due to a defined or implied boundary, or because of differences of value, color, or texture.

  • A shape is formed when a line encloses an area.

  • Shapes have two dimensions, length and width and can be geometric or free-form.

Principles of design


  • Forms describes volumes and mass, or the 3D aspects of objects that take up space.

  • Forms can and should be viewed from any angles.

    For example: When you hold a baseball, or a small sculpture, you are aware of their curves, angles, indentations, & edges i.e. their forms.

Principles of design


  • Space is a 3D volume that can be empty or filled with objects. It has width, height, and depth.

  • Space that appears three- dimensional in a 2D painting is an illusion that creates a feeling of actual depth.

  • Several techniques can be used to show such visual depth or space, for example, overlapping, linear perspective, etc..

Example for Overlapping

Principles of design

Other Examples

Detail (aerial or atmospheric perspective)

Linear perspective ( converging lines )

Principles of design


  • Color has three properties. The first is hue, which is the name of the colors.

    - the primary hue are Yellow, Red, and Blue.

    - secondary colors are made by mixing two primaries.

    - intermediate colors are mixtures of a primary & adjacent secondary


  • The second property is Value, which refers to the lightness or darkness of hue.

  • The third property is Intensity, which refers to the purity of the hue also known as “Chroma”.

Principles of design


Value Scale

Color Wheel

Principles of design


  • Texture refers to the surface quality, both simulated and actual, of


Principles of design

  • Principles

  • Of

  • Design



“ThePrinciples of Design are the artistic guidelines used to organize or arrange the structural elements of design.”

Basic principles of designing

Basic Principles of Designing

  • Following are the six basic principles of effective design which are common throughout the field of designing (i.e. from print design to lithography, typography, & industrial design).

  • Balance

  • Contrast

  • Emphasis

  • Pattern

  • Rhythm/Movement

  • Unity



Principles of design


  • Balance refers to the appropriate arrangement of objects in a design to create the impression of equality in weight or importance. Balance provides stability and structure to a design. Balance may be symmetrical and asymmetrical, but the goal should be to achieve equilibrium.

  • Symmetrical Balance can be described as having equal “weight” on equal sides of a centrally placed fulcrum. It is also known as formal balance.

  • Asymmetrical Balance is more complex and difficult top envisage. It involves placement of objects in a way that will allow objects of varying visual weight to balance one another around a fulcrum point. It is also known as informal balance.

Principles of design


Balance is informal when sides are not

exactly symmetrical, but the resulting image is still balanced.

Balance is formal when both sides are

symmetrical in terms of arrangement.

Principles of design


  • Rhythm or movement is regarded as a visual temp or beat. It refers to a regular repetition of elements to produce the look and feel of a movement.

  • Rhythm can be achieved through the careful placement of repeated components. It can be directed for example, along edges & by means of shape and colour.

  • Rhythm can be categorized Random, Regular, Alternating, Progressive, and Flowing.

Principles of design


  • The term emphasis literally means to give importance.

  • Emphasis in designing refers to give special attention to one part of a work of art.

  • It can be achieved through placement, contrast, colour, size, repetition, etc.

    For example: A dark shape in a light composition

Principles of design


  • Contrast refers to the juxtaposition of different elements of design (for example: rough & smooth textures, dark & light values)in order to highlight their differences or create visual interest , or a focal point.

  • Contrast allows us to emphasize or highlight key elements in your design.

Principles of design


  • Pattern in a design simply refers to keeping your design in a certain format.

  • It is often described as a regular arrangement of alternated or repeated elements (shapes, lines, colors) or motifs.

    For example: One could plan to have curved lines all around a design as

    a pattern.

Principles of design


  • Unity refers to the arrangement of elements to give the viewer the feeling that all the parts of the design or piece form a coherent whole i.e. designs must be in harmony in which all sections of the pattern make other sections feel complete.

  • It enables the design to be seen as one complete piece of art or design.

Principles of design

Absolute examples of Designing Elements & Principles!!!

One can create such aesthetic piece of art if he strictly

adhere to all Elements & Principles of Designing.

Paintings by student of ADMEC

Principles of design

Compiled By


ADMEC Multimedia Institute

For more info you can visit

For course related enquiry, ring us at:

9811-81-81-22, 011-3130-5055, 011-3203-5055

Can send feedback at: @admecinstitute

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