slide1
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
RADIATION SAFETY T RAINING

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 89

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 163 Views
  • Uploaded on

RADIATION SAFETY T RAINING. Presented by: Ali Shoushtarian Office of Risk Management, Environmental Health and Safety Service. Last revised Jan. 2009. Manager, Radiation and Biosafety Lois Sowden-Plunkett ext. 3058 [email protected] Compliance Inspector

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING' - iniko


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

RADIATIONSAFETYTRAINING

Presented by:Ali Shoushtarian

Office of Risk Management, Environmental Health and Safety Service

Last revised Jan. 2009

slide2

Manager, Radiation and Biosafety

Lois Sowden-Plunkett

ext. 3058 [email protected]

Compliance Inspector

Ali Shoushtarian

ext. 3057 [email protected]

Radiation Safety Program Web Page http://www.uottawa.ca/services/ehss/ionizing.htm

regulatory agencies
REGULATORY AGENCIES
  • Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC)
  • City of Ottawa
  • Ontario Fire Marshall
  • Transport Canada
  • Ontario Ministry of Labour
slide4
Radiation Safety Committee

Reports to the Board of Governors

Chaired by Vice-Rector, Research

Ensures compliance with CNSC regulations and license conditions, issues permits

Office of Risk Management – EHS

Manages the radiation safety program

Conducts inspections

Monitors doses, inventory

Conducts training

STAKEHOLDERS

slide5

STAKEHOLDERS

Radioisotope Permit Holder

  • Ensures all University regulations, policies and requirements are met
  • Adheres to all permit limits and conditions
  • Ensures a safe work environment

Radioisotope User

  • Complies with all elements of radiation safety program
  • Works in a safe fashion (self, colleagues, environment)
  • attends all appropriate training
permits
PERMITS

1. Open Sources

2. Sealed Sources

3. Sealed Sources incorporated in a device

4. Exempt Quantities

with associated permit conditions

course outline
COURSE OUTLINE

GENERAL INTRODUCTION

physical and biological characteristics

risk analysis

units and calculations

OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES

ordering and receipt of material

inventory and disposal

monitoring

SAFE PRACTICES

personal protection

handling procedures

laboratory safety

MOVIE

slide8

WHAT IS RADIATION ?

WHAT IS RADIATION ?

radiation
RADIATION
  • Spontaneous decay
  • Half-life
  • 4 geometry
slide10

RADIATION

Excess p & n  alpha particles

Excess p  positron ( + )

Excess n  negatron (  - )

Excess nuclear E  gamma ray

Excess orbital E  X-ray

alpha emission
ALPHA EMISSION
  • origin: DISINTEGRATING NUCLEUS (Mainly heavy nuclei)
  • form of radiation: PARTICLE
  • energy range: 4-8 MeV
  • range of travel: 2-8 cm in air
  • other characteristics: LARGE MASS, DOUBLE CHARGE, HIGH SPECIFIC ACTIVITY
beta emission
BETA EMISSION
  • origin: DISINTEGRATING NUCLEUS
  • form of radiation: NEGATRON (electron)

POSITRON (similar to an electron but positive charge)

  • energy range: 0.02 - 4.8 MeV
  • range of travel: 0 - 10 m in air
  • other characteristics: DIFFERS FROM AN ELECTON IN ORIGIN AND ENERGY; TRAVELS ALMOST THE SPEED OF LIGHT; ALMOST NO MASS (9.1x 10-31 kg)
gamma emission
GAMMA EMISSION
  • origin: NUCLEUS
  • form of radiation: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (emr - photon)
  • energy range: 10 keV - 3 MeV
  • range of travel: 100 m in air
  • other characteristics: ZERO MASS, ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL
x ray emission
X-RAY EMISSION
  • origin: ORBITAL ELECTRON
  • form of radiation: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION (emr - photon)
  • energy range: 10eV - 120 keV
  • range of travel: 100 m in air
  • other characteristics: ZERO MASS, ELECTRICALLY NEUTRAL
interaction with matter
INTERACTION WITH MATTER

IONIZATION

  • Electron is removed from an electron shell leaving a charged particle.

EXCITATION

  • Electron is raised to a higher energy level but isn’t knocked out of the shell
slide16

BREMSSTRAHLUNG

  • A negatron approaches the nucleus and is accelerated.
  • As it leaves the nucleus it decelerates and emits excess energy as emr.

INTERACTION WITH MATTER

interaction with biological matter
DIRECT

vital cell structures

INDIRECT

ionizes H2O

forms peroxides

interacts with the vital cell structure

INTERACTION WITH BIOLOGICAL MATTER
radiation ranges in tissue
RADIATION RANGES IN TISSUE

(average linear dimension of a cell = 17.1 m )

  • alpha particles of 210Po ……… 15m
  • beta particles of 3H …………… 5 m
  • beta particles of 32P ……….. 300 m
  • gamma rays of 60Co …………. infinity
radiosensitivity of cells
RADIOSENSITIVITY OF CELLS
  • Blood producing and reproductive cells are the most sensitive
  • Muscle, nerve and bone cells are the least.

At low doses, the effects of radiation are not known.

internal doses
INTERNAL DOSES
  • CRITICAL ORGANS
    • 3H – Body water or tissue
    • 14C – Fat tissue
    • 32P – Bones
    • 35S – Gonads
    • 125I – Thyroid
    • 57Co – Large Intestine

PREGNANCY

external doses
EXTERNAL DOSES

Gamma rays

Beta particles

Alpha particles

biological response to radiation
BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE TO RADIATION
  • No change
  • Mutation and repair
  • Permanent change with limited effect
  • Changes leading to cancer or other effects
  • Death of cell / organism (minutes - years)
the effects of radiation on the human body
THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON THE HUMAN BODY
  • Genetic
          • appears in latter generations
          • due to cell damage of the reproductive organs
  • Somatic
          • appears in the irradiated individual
          • immediate or delayed effects
  • Stochastic
          • refers to probability of biological effect due to ionizing radiation
          • assumes effect is proportional to dose / dose rate, i.e., no safe threshold
dose limits
non-NEWNEW

Whole body, gonads, 1 mSv 50 mSv

bone marrow

Skin, thyroid, bone 50 mSv 500 mSv

Tissue of hands, feet, 50 mSv 500 mSv

and forearms

Dose Limits:

THERMOLUMINESCENT DOSIMETRY

comparison of risk
COMPARISON OF RISK
  • exposure to 100 Sv ionizing radiation
  • smoking 1.5 cigarettes
  • travelling 50 miles by car
  • being male and 60 years old for 20 minutes
  • canoeing for 6 minutes
units of radiation
UNITS OF RADIATION
  • ACTIVITY
  • ABSORBED DOSE
  • DOSE EQUIVALENT
activity units
ACTIVITY UNITS

Non - S.I.(Système international)

CURIE (Ci)

1 Ci = 3.7 x 1010 dps

S.I.

BECQUEREL (Bq)

1 Bq = 1 dps

absorbed dose units
ABSORBED DOSE UNITS

Non - S.I.

RAD (rad)

1 rad = 100 ergs of energy/g

S.I.

GRAY (Gy)

1 Gy = 1 joule of energy/kg

dose equivalent units
DOSE EQUIVALENT UNITS

Non - S.I.

REM (rem)

1 rem = rad x Quality Factor

S.I.

SIEVERT (Sv)

1 Sv = Gy x Quality Factor

calculations
CALCULATIONS

TWO IMPORTANT CALCULATIONS:

1. Decay correction

2. Converting cpm to Curies

1 decay correction

CALCULATIONS

1. DECAY CORRECTION

A = Aoe -  t

A = activity at time “t”

Ao= activity at time zero

t = elapsed time

 = decay constant ( = 0.693 / t 1/2)

example

CALCULATIONS

Example:
  • 250 Ci of 35S arrived on May 19, 2005
  • 100 Ci was removed and used the same day.
  • The remaining amount was stored in a freezer for future use.
  • On June 30, 2005, it is decided to repeat the experiment.

? Does another order of 35S have to be placed or is there enough remaining activity that the experiment may proceed?

solution

CALCULATIONS

Solution:

A = A0e - t

A = activity at time ‘t’ ( ? )

A0= activity at time zero (250 - 100 = 150 Ci)

t = elapsed time (42 days)

 = decay constant (0.693 / 87 days = 0.00797)

A = (150)e - (0.00797)(42)

A = 107.32 Ci

(** SAVINGS **)

2 converting cpm to curies

CALCULATIONS

2. CONVERTING CPM TO CURIES

Step 1 Determine counting

efficiency of the detector.

Step 2 Convert cpm to dpm.

Step 3 Convert dpm to Curie.

step 1 determine counting efficiency of the detector using a source with a known activity

CALCULATIONS

Step 1 Determine counting efficiency of the detector using a source with a known activity.

% efficiency = observed cpm - background cpm x 100 source of emission rate (dpm)

Ex. count rate = 2045 cpm

background = 65 cpm

source = 220 Bq = 1.32 x 104 dpm

% efficiency = 2045 - 65 cpm = 15%

1.32 x 104 dpm

step 2 convert cpm to dpm

CALCULATIONS

Step 2 Convert cpm to dpm.

dpm = corrected cpm

efficiency

Ex. Sample = 4925 cpm

background = 65 cpm

efficiency = 15%

dpm = 4925 - 65 = 32,400

0.15

step 3 convert dpm to curie

CALCULATIONS

Step 3 Convert dpm to curie.

Since 1 Bq = 1 dps = 2.7 x 10-11 Ci

Then 60 dpm = 2.7 x 10-11 Ci

Therefore32,400 dpm = 1.48 x 10-8 Ci

or, # Bq = __1.48 x 10-8 Ci_ = 540 Bq

2.7 x 10 -11 Ci/Bq

classification of laboratory
CLASSIFICATION OF LABORATORY

Annual Limit on Intake (ALI)

The activity, in Becquerel (Bq), of a radionuclide that will deliver an effective dose of 20 mSv after the radionuclide is taken into the body

Basic: 5 X ALI Intermediate: 5-50 X ALI High: 50-500 X ALI

Exemption Quantity (EQ)

The quantity, in Becquerel (Bq), of a radionuclide, below which no licence is required

10000 EQ: Written approval from CNSC

classification of radionuclides
CLASSIFICATION OF RADIONUCLIDES
  • Contamination levels
  • Decommissioning levels

Class A (high): Na-22, Zn-65

Class B (med): Rb-86

Class C (low): H-3, C-14 , S-35, Ca-45,

P-33, P-32, I-125

decay products
DECAY PRODUCTS

32P  Sulphur

14C  Nitrogen

35S  Chlorine

3H  Helium-3

operational procedures
OPERATIONAL PROCEDURES
  • Ordering
  • Receipt of Radioactive Material (TDG)
  • Inventory
  • Disposal
  • Monitoring
  • Inspection of Laboratories
ordering
ORDERING
  • Radioactive materials purchase procedures

- Radioisotopes Purchase Requisition form

- Form must be complete (PO number, signature)

- EHSS approval before ordering

- Documentation (packing slips, shipper’s declaration)

  • Permit conditions
  • Material purchased for other labs
  • Inventory records
slide43

PURCHASE

REQUISITION

FORM

receipt of radioactive material
RECEIPT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
  • TDG – Class 7

- Definition of radioactive materials

- Radioactive packages

- Radiation warning labels

- Receipt of radioactive material

tdg class 7
TDG – CLASS 7

DEFINITION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL FOR TRANSPORT

Former:

- 70kBq/kg

New:

- radionuclide dependent

- types of radiation

- energies

- chemical forms

- potentialbiological effect on persons

tdg class 71
TDG – CLASS 7

Radioactive packages may be shipped as:

- Excepted packages

- Industrial packages – Categories I, II and III

- Type A packages – lower amounts

- Type B (U) packages – large amounts; ≤ 700 kPa

- Type B (M) packages – large amounts; > 700 kPa

- Type C packages – for air transport of high activity

tdg class 72
TDG – CLASS 7

EXCEPTED PACKAGES

- The safety mark ‘RADIOACTIVE’ must be visible on

opening the package

- The radiation level at any point on the external surface

of the package must not exceed 5 Sv/h

All other packages must be categorized by radiation

level and display the corresponding radiation warning

labels as follows:

tdg class 73
TDG – CLASS 7

RADIATION WARNING LABELS

Category I-White: less than 5 Sv/h

Category II-Yellow: less than 500 Sv/h, TI less than 1

Category III-Yellow: less than 2 mSv/h, TI less than 10

TI: maximum radiation level in Sv/h at 1 meter from the

external surface of the package, divided by 10.

Ex: 1 Sv/h (0.1 mrem/h) at 1 m equals a TI = 0.1

tdg class 74
TDG – CLASS 7

RECEIPT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

- Radioactive packages must be delivered to the laboratory using a cart

to increase distance between the transporter and the package in order

to minimize radiation exposure

- Inspect packaging both externally and internally for damage or leakage

- Perform contamination monitoring on the package, vial holder and vial

- Deface wording and labels prior to disposal of the package

- Complete an Inventory of Use and Disposition form

Report any anomalies to the supervisor and RSO

inventory
INVENTORY
  • Sealed Sources

(encapsulated, incorporated in a

device, check sources)

  • Open Sources
  • Transfers

** HISTORICAL

slide52

Radioactive

Waste

Solid

Water-Soluble

Liquid Scintillation

Animal Carcasses

Waste

Waste

Waste

Waste

DISPOSAL

slide53

Solid Waste

Landfill

Short-Term Storage

Off-Site

(1 DL / kg)

(t 1/2 = 90 days)

Disposal

(e.g., sealed sources)

(1 DL/kg)

DISPOSAL

DISPOSAL LIMITS (DL) TO MUNICIPAL GARBAGE

C-14: 3.7 MBq (100 μCi)/kg; H-3: 37 MBq (1000 μCi)/kg

I-125: 0.037 MBq (1 μCi)/kg; P-32: 0.37 MBq (10 μCi)/kg

slide54

DISPOSAL

Labels

  • On decay can
  • Deface contents
slide56

DISPOSAL

Time required for decay

A = Ao e -  t

t = ln (A/Ao)

- 

A = activity at time ‘t’

Ao= activity at time zero

t = elapsed time

 = decay constant ( = 0.693 / t 1/2 )

example1

DISPOSAL

Example:
  • 100 μCi of 32P solid waste collected
  • Weight of waste = 0.785 kg
  • Disposal limit of 32P is 0.37 MBq/kg (10 μCi)
  • half life (t1/2) of 32P is 14.3 days
solution1

DISPOSAL

Solution:

Step 1 Determine activity (A) permitted at disposal

Weight = 0.785 kg

1 DL/kg = 10 Ci / kg

A = Weight X 1 DL / kg

A = 0.785 kg X 10 Ci / kg

A = 7.85 Ci

step 2 determine length of decay period t

DISPOSAL

Step 2: Determine Length of Decay Period (t)

t = ln (A/Ao)

- 

A = activity at time ‘t’ (7.85 Ci)

Ao = activity at time zero (100 Ci)

t = elapsed time (?)

 = decay constant (0.693 / 14.3 days = 0.0485/day)

t = ln (7.85 Ci / 100 Ci) = 52.5 days

- 0.0485/day

slide60

Water Soluble

Waste

DL/Year/Building

DISPOSAL

C-14: 0.01 TBq, H-3: 1 TBq

I-125: 100 MBq, P-32: 4 GBq

slide61

Liquid Scintillation

Waste

Off-Site Disposal

DISPOSAL

monitoring
MONITORING

Survey Meters

versus

Contamination Monitors

monitoring1
MONITORING
  • Leak testing
  • Contamination monitoring
  • Dose rate around storage, waste, use areas

* prior to repair of equipment

leak testing sealed sources

MONITORING

Leak Testing (Sealed Sources)
  • Sources  1.35 mCi
  • frequency [6 (in use), 12 (in a device), or 24 months (storage)],
  • CNSC procedures,
  • certificates
  • reporting criteria (200 Bq leakage)
  • transfers, incidents (immediately)
monitoring2
MONITORING

Contamination Monitoring (Open Sources)

  • Map of lab
  • Weekly or after 5 x ALI
  • Decontaminate
  • Record “no radioisotope used”
  • After any spill
slide68

MONITORING

Contamination Criteria <

Class A: 3.0 Bq/cm2

Class B: 30 Bq/cm2

Class C: 300 Bq/cm2

Decommissioning Criteria <

Class A: 0.3 Bq/cm2

Class B: 3.0 Bq/cm2

Class C: 30 Bq/cm2

EHSS Criteria

0.3 Bq/cm2

slide69

Contamination Monitoring

Parameters of interest for contamination monitors-Efficiency

Not all decay emissions

Are detected!

Detector Covering

Detector Volume

Efficiency:

1) Distance: 1/r2

2) Beta Absorption

3) Size of window

Surface

contamination monitoring
Contamination Monitoring

Converting cpm results into Bq/cm2 for GM pancake

  • Bq/cm2 = (Cpm – Bkg) / Ec X Ew X 60 X A
  • where Cpm = counts per minute for the wipe,
  • Bkg = counts per minute of the background filter,
  • Ec = scintillation counter efficiency (see note below), or GM efficiency
  • Ew = wipe efficiency, assume 10% (0.1), and
  • A = area wiped in cm2.
  • Note: As a rule of thumb, when the counter efficiency (Ec) is unknown, the following
  • efficiencies can be used for the purpose of counting wipes:
  • 100% (1) for 32P, 14C, 35S
  • 75% (0.75) for 125I
  • 50% (0.5) for 3H and unknowns
inspections
INSPECTIONS

1. General Condition of lab

2. Inventory/Disposal

3. Contamination Monitoring

4. Measurements

5. Questionnaire

dose rate measurements should be undertaken
Dose rate measurements should be undertaken:
  • Routinely to ensure doses are ALARA
  • Around storage, waste and use areas
  • Whenever new sources arrive, or new radioisotopes are used
  • When new experimental procedures are implemented
slide73

SAFE HANDLING PRACTICES

A As

L Low

A As

R Reasonably

A Achievable

slide74

SAFE HANDLING PRACTICES

TIME

D = d X t

D = radiation dose

d = radiation dose rate

t = time duration of exposure

distance

SAFE HANDLING PRACTICES

DISTANCE

Inverse Square Law

D1 s12 = D2 s22

D1 = dose at distance 1

s1 = distance 1

D2 = dose at distance 2

s 2 = distance 2

sheilding

SAFE HANDLING PRACTICES

SHEILDING
  • reduces or stops radiation
  • dependent on:

- energy of radiation

- type of shielding

remember: 4 geometry

personal protection equipment
PERSONAL PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
  • LAB COAT
  • GLOVES
  • SAFETY GLASSES
spill response
SPILL RESPONSE

1. REPORTING

2. CLEAN-UP

3. LEAVING CONTAMINATED AREA

4. PERSONAL DECONTAMINATION

1 reporting

SPILL RESPONSE

1. REPORTING

 Inform co-workers & supervisor.

 Inform Protection Services (5411)

 Inform ORM

(3058, 3057)

2 clean up

SPILL RESPONSE

2. CLEAN-UP

1. Attend to injured person and ensure personal safety.

2. Assess the size of the spill.

3. Obtain necessary supplies.

4. Cover spill with absorbent.

slide81

SPILL RESPONSE

5. Push spill towards centre.

6. Decontaminate area in sections.

7. Check for contamination (record).

8. Re-clean as necessary.

9. Inform Radiation Safety Officer of fixed contamination.

3 leaving a contaminated area

SPILL RESPONSE

3. LEAVING A CONTAMINATED AREA
  • Monitor self (especially feet, hands and lab coat).
  • Leave lab coat behind if contaminated and remove dosimeter badge.
  • Put up sign and lock door.
slide83

SPILL RESPONSE

DO NOT ENTER!

Name

Telephone #

Nature of Spill

Location

Time of Return

4 personal decontamination

SPILL RESPONSE

4. PERSONAL DECONTAMINATION
  • Use tepid water and mild soap.
  • Avoid causing abrasions to skin.
  • Wash for a few minutes, dry and monitor. (fingernails too!)
  • Carefully monitoring is the only way to measure progress.
slide85

Suspicious packages

Unopened

  • Do not open and do not shake
  • Place in secondary container or cover
  • Inform others of the situation
  • Clear the room and section off the area
  • All individuals who may have come into contact with the material must wash their hands
  • Call Protection Services and wait for their arrival
  • List all the individuals present in the room or area when the package arrived. Give this list to Protection Services for follow-up
suspicious packages
Suspicious packages

Opened

  • Contents Intact
  • Do not manipulate contents further
  • Cover the package
  • Inform others of the situation
  • Clear the room and section off the area
  • All individuals who may have come into contact with the material must wash their hands
  • Call Protection Services and wait for their arrival
  • List all the individuals present in the room or area when the package arrived. Give this list to Protection Services for follow-up
suspicious packages1
Suspicious packages

Contents not intact (spilled)

  • Do not try to clean up the spill
  • Gently cover the spill
  • Inform others of the situation
  • All individuals who may have come into contact with the material must wash their hands
  • Call Protection Services
  • Remove heavily contaminated clothing (place in bag) and shower using soap and water
  • List all the individuals present in the room or area when the package arrived. Give this list to Protection Services for follow-up
summary
SUMMARY

External Dose: time distance shielding

Internal Dose: critical organs

prevent: …. ingestion

…….absorption

…….inhalation

think safety
THINK SAFETY

PLAN

PRACTICE

REVIEW

ad