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Non Egyptian Ancient African Civilizations. World History Libertyville High School. Nubia. Area between First through Fifth cataracts of Nile Conquered by Egypt around 2000 BC Served as major trading center between Egypt, African societies

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Non egyptian ancient african civilizations

Non Egyptian Ancient African Civilizations

World History

Libertyville High School


Nubia
Nubia

  • Area between First through Fifth cataracts of Nile

  • Conquered by Egypt around 2000 BC

    • Served as major trading center between Egypt, African societies

  • After New Kingdom failed, Nubians regained independence

    • Saw selves as TRUE Egyptians

    • Adopted Egyptian titles, customs

    • Invaded, ruled Egypt as pharaohs

    • Defeated by Assyrians


Western africa and the sahara
Western Africa and the Sahara

  • Evidence of human settlers in W Africa from 12000 BC

  • Ca. 5000 BC, herders, dry farming communities

  • Ca 3000 BC, Sahara savannah began turning into a desert

    • Farmers, herders, migrated towards coasts

    • Desertification isolated W Africa coastal peoples


West african societies
West African Societies

  • Urban Development

    • Earliest stone walled towns developed around 2000 BC

    • Towns emerged ca. 600-200 BC in Sahel (S of Sahara)

    • All towns in Sahel grew up around oases or rivers


Western africa and the sahara1
Western Africa and the Sahara

  • Around 400 BC, contact re-established with North Africa & trade resumed

    • Traded gold from SW for salt, iron goods from N

    • Diffusion of iron production gave W Africans big advantage over neighbors

      • ability to expand farming

      • Made better weapons

    • Formed city-states and empires in the AD period

    • Later expanded culture S


West african societies1
West African Societies

  • Bantu Migrations

    • Bantu = N-Central African language group

    • Migrated into equatorial rain forests & African Highlands

    • Imposed language, spread iron smelting & high yield agriculture (a.k.a cultural diffusion!)

    • Founded Great Zimbabwe Kingdom around 800 AD


Sub saharan central and southern africa to 600 bc
Sub-Saharan (Central and Southern) Africa to 600 BC

  • Political organization: none(family groups)

  • Hunter-gatherers

  • Technological development = stone, bone tech

  • Religion

    • Animism: spirits of natural world, animals, geographic locations


Why didn t complex society develop in sub saharan africa
Why Didn’t Complex Society Develop in Sub Saharan Africa?

  • Persistence of hunter-gatherer bands

    • Abundance of game

    • Lack of external (human) threats to lifestyle = stayed the same

  • Persistence of subsistence farming

    • Lack of high yield crops = low incentive to farm

    • Lack of domesticable animals = no incentive to herd

    • Lack of irrigable waterways = no way to irrigate

  • Geographic considerations

    • Lack of natural harbors = no trade or contact with other civs

    • Geographic barriers (Sahara) assured isolation


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