Ancient civilizations
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Ancient Civilizations. The World of Islam. Arabs. Arabs = nomadic bedouins, Semitic speaking people who lived in Arabian Peninsula Hostile surroundings made the Arabs move constantly to continue to feed their animals

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Ancient Civilizations

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Ancient civilizations

Ancient Civilizations

The World of Islam


Arabs

Arabs

  • Arabs = nomadic bedouins, Semitic speaking people who lived in Arabian Peninsula

  • Hostile surroundings made the Arabs move constantly to continue to feed their animals

  • Arabs organized into independent tribes to help each other with difficult lives

  • Sheikh = leader of tribe

  • Early Arabs herded sheep & farmed on the Arabian peninsula

  • After domestication of camel, expanded caravan trade from between Persian gulf & Mediterranean


Ancient civilizations

Bedouins


Arabs1

Arabs

  • Early Arabs were polytheistic, Allah = main god

  • Traced their ancestry to Abraham & his son Ishmael, who were believed to have built a shrine called the Kaaba at Mecca

  • Black Stone, cornerstone of Kaaba, revered for its association with Abraham


Muhammad

Muhammad

  • Born into merchant family in Mecca, orphaned early

  • Became a caravan merchant & married his boss, a rich widow named Khadija

  • Muhammad was troubled with gap between the greedy rich & honest poor

  • Muhammad went into mountains to meditate on the issue

  • While meditating, Muhammad received revelation from God through the angel Gabriel


Muhammad1

Muhammad

  • Muhammad came to believe that Allah had revealed himself partially to Moses & Jesus and his final revelations were to him

  • Islam = submission to the will of Allah

  • Quran = Muslim bible based on Muhammad revelations

  • Quran contains ethical guidelines for Muslims

  • Islam has only one god, Muhammad is the prophet


Ancient civilizations

Mosque Of The

Prophet

In Madinah


Ancient civilizations

Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem:

Where Muhammad

Ascended Into Heaven


Islam

ISLAM

  • Muhammad became a religious, political, & military leader

  • He assembled a military force to defend community/ military victories attracted many followers

  • In 630, Muhammad returned to Mecca with 10,000 soldiers/ city surrendered & many residents converted to Islam

  • Muhammad declared the Kaaba to be a sacred shrine

  • Muhammad died 2 years later, Islam spread through the Arabian peninsula


Ancient civilizations

The Quran:

Holy Book

Of Islam


Five pillars of islam

Five Pillars of Islam

  • Faith – Allah is the one true god and Muhammad is his prophet.

  • Prayer – five times a day toward Makkah, noon on Fridays at mosque.

  • Alms Giving.

  • Fasting – during Ramadan from sunrise to sunset.

  • Pilgrimage - a hajj to Makkah once in lifetime


Ancient civilizations

There is no deity except Allah (the One and Only God), Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah.


Ancient civilizations

Celebrating The Last Day of Ramadan


Ancient civilizations

Pilgrims On

The Road to

And Camped

Outside of Makkah

Pil


Ancient civilizations

Al-Haram Mosque Holds the Kaaba


Ancient civilizations

Values:

Honor parents

Be kind to neighbors

Protect widows and orphans

Give to the poor

Condemns:

Murder

Stealing

Lying

Adultery

The Quran

Forbids:

Gambling

Pork

Alcohol

Regulates:

Marriage

Divorce

Inheritance

Business

Endorses:

Polygamy

Slavery

Jihad


Muslim cartoon

Muslim Cartoon


Creation of arab empire

Creation of Arab Empire

  • Difficult finding leadership after Muhammad’s death

  • Abu Bakr = Muhammad’s father-in-law was chosen to be successor/ called caliph = successor to Muhammad

  • Bakr & Muhammad used Jihad to spread movement of Islam

  • Jihad = “struggle in way of god”

  • By 650 Egypt, Syria, & Persian empire were part of Arab empire/ Done under leadership of Bakr

  • Death in battle was assured place in palace/enhanced military courage


Ancient civilizations

Abu Bakr

Muhammad Surrounded by the

Four Rightly-Guided Caliphs


Ancient civilizations

The Meaning of Jihad

1. Jihad against oneself - the daily struggle against evil and temptation in life.

2. Jihad with knowledge - the struggle to use knowledge, particularly from the Qur'an, to fight ignorance and to gain converts to Islam not through battle, but through the power of Qur'anic knowledge.

3. Jihad with wealth - the struggle to give up material wealth for the benefit of Islam, through charitable donations.

4. Jihad with the sword - the physical struggle to defend Islam against harm from unbelievers. Muslims believe that if they give their lives in this military jihad they will be rewarded with eternal paradise.

5. Jihad through righteousness - the struggle to continuously undertake good deeds to please God and benefit humanity.


Arab empire

Arab Empire

  • First 2 caliphs after Abu Bakr were killed

  • In 656 Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, became caliph but was assassinated 5 years later


Ancient civilizations

Ali and Sons

Ali's Shrine


Umayyad dynasty

Umayyad Dynasty

  • In 661, general Mu’awiyah became caliph/ was rival of Ali

  • Was governor of Syria & moved capital from Medinah to Damascus

  • Was known for only using force if necessary

  • Made the office of caliph hereditary

  • 8th century Arabs conquered & converted the Berbers = lived on coast of North Africa

  • Occupied southern Spain/ By 725 Spain was Muslim state

  • Arabs were defeated at Battle of Tours ending European expansion


Ancient civilizations

Mu'awiyah


Ancient civilizations

Damascus:

Umayyad Capital


Umayyad dynasty1

Umayyad Dynasty

  • In 717, Muslims attacked Constantinople, but their navy was defeated by Byzantines

  • Internal struggles led to revolts

  • Most important revolt was led by Hussein, 2nd son of Ali/ Most of his followers defected and he fought 10,000 soldiers with 72….All died

  • The struggles caused Islam to split into two groups, the Shiite & Sunni

  • Split continues today….Most Muslims are Sunnis, but much of Iraq & Iran consider themselves Shiites


Abbasid dynasty

Abbasid Dynasty

  • In 750, Abu al-Abbas overthrew the Umayyad dynasty & founded Abbasid which lasted until 1258

  • In 762, Abbasid built new capital of Baghdad on the Tigris river/ location took advantage of river & caravan traffic

  • Harun al-Rashid led dynasty through golden age/ known for charity and patronage

  • Son = al Ma’mun was a great patron of learning

  • Baghdad became center of a huge trade empire


Ancient civilizations

Baghdad


Abbasid dynasty falls

Abbasid Dynasty Falls

  • Abbasid experienced problems; fighting over succession of caliph

  • Vast wealth led to financial corruption

  • Shortage of qualified Arabs to fill government positions allowed non-Arabs to become a dominant force in the military & bureaucracy which led disintegration

  • Rulers of provinces began to break away

  • Spain, Morocco, Egypt = independent with own caliphate


Ancient civilizations

Umayyad Mosque

In Spain

Samanid

Mosque

In Bukhara


Ancient civilizations

Fatimid Mosque in Cairo


Seljuk turks crusades

Seljuk Turks & Crusades

  • Fatimid dynasty became center of Islamic civilization = important because it was located on Nile river = Cairo

  • Created a strong army by non-native soldiers = Seljuk Turks

  • Seljuk Turks = nomadic people from central Asia, converted to Islam

  • Took over much of Abbasid empire & captured Baghdad; held political and military power

  • Turks took over Anatolian plateau, Byzantine empire turned west for help


Crusades

Crusades

  • Byzantine emperor Alexius I asked Christian states of Europe for help against Turks

  • Europeans agreed and a series of Crusades began in 1096

  • Crusaders put Muslims on defensive first

  • 1169, Saladin took control of Egypt & ended Fatimid dynasty, took offensive @ Christians

  • 1187, Saladin’s army destroyed the Christian forces in the kingdom of Jerusalem

  • Main effect of Crusades = centuries of mistrust between Muslims & Christians


Mongols

Mongols

  • Pastoral people who came out of the Gobi desert in early 13th century

  • Were highly destructive conquerors whose goal was to create such a terror that people would not fight back

  • 1258, Mongols seized Persia & Mesopotamia

  • Leader – Hulegu hated Islam, detroyed Baghdad & Abbasid caliphate ended

  • Mongols advanced as far as the Red Sea

  • They failed to conquer because resistance of Mamluks = Turkish slave soldiers who had power after overthrowing Saladin


Mongols1

Mongols

  • Mongol leaders began to convert to Islam & intermarried with local peoples

  • 14th century, Mongol empire split into separate kingdoms

  • Islamic empire ended

  • Because Mongols had destroyed Baghdad, Cairo became center of Islamic civilization


Ancient civilizations

Mongols


Ancient civilizations

Genghis

Khan United

Mongol

Cavalry


Ancient civilizations

Kublai

Khan


Mmm spaghetti

mmm…Spaghetti


Islamic civilization

Islamic Civilization

  • Arab empire was generally prosperous

  • Based on extensive trade by ship & camel

  • Camel caravans went to Morocco in far west to countries beyond Caspian Sea

  • Trade began to prosper during Abassid dynasty

  • Large magnificent cities began to prosper……..Baghdad, Cairo, Damascus, Cordoba

  • Islamic cities had their own physical appearance

  • Palace & mosques = most impressive buildings

  • Fountains, public baths, bazaars


Ancient civilizations

Bazaars


Islamic society

Islamic Society

  • Muslims live their lives in accordance with Allah’s teachings revealed in the Quran

  • Islam claims that all people are equal in the eyes of Allah/ was not always the case in the Arab empire = well defined upper class of ruling families & wealthy merchants

  • Slaves were not considered equal/Muslims could not be slaves/ Slaves came from south Africa or Asia, mostly captives of war/treated pretty well, many were set free

  • Women were not treated equal, Quran does not tell men to do so


Islamic society1

Islamic Society

  • Men dominated Arab empire

  • Every woman had a male guardian/ Women were secluded at home & kept from social contacts with men outside their families

  • Parents arranged marriages for children/ Muslim men could have up to 4 wives\had to pay dowry

  • Women covered much of their bodies while in public

  • These customs are more connected with Arab practice than to the teachings of the Quran


Johnny cash

Johnny Cash


Islamic achievements

Islamic Achievements

  • Al-Ma’mun’s House of Wisdom = Baghdad, Arab scholars translated Greek works by Plato, Aristotle, etc./ Mathematics texts were included

  • Ibn-Rushd = scholar, wrote commentaries on Aristotle’s works

  • Math = created algebra & passed on India’s numbering system known as “Arabic” in Europe

  • Science = perfected astrolabe-used by sailors to determine location by looking at position of planets & stars/ observatory in Baghdad where scientists studied and named many stars


Ancient civilizations

Arabic Achievements


Ancient civilizations

Ibn-Rushd


Islamic achievements1

Islamic Achievements

  • Medicine = developed medicine as a field of study/ Ibn Sina wrote medical encyclopedia, Canon of Medicine, it showed how diseases could spread

  • History = Ibn Khaldun proposed cyclical history, cause & effect, wrote Muqaddimah- Intro to History

  • Literature = Quran was main book/ Omar Khayyam wrote Rubaiyat/ Arabian Nights (1001 Nights) collection of folktales & fables that were first told orally & then written down over many years

  • Art/Architecture = blends together Arabic, Turkish, & Persian traditions


Ancient civilizations

Ibn Sina


Islamic achievements2

Islamic Achievements

  • Art is expressed in Mosques/ decorations = arabesques- geometric patterns of Arabic letters, plants, & abstract figures

  • No representation of Muhammad in any art/ prophet warned against imitating God by creating pictures

  • Great Mosque of Samarra is the largest Mosque ever built = present day Iraq, covers 10 acres

  • Mosque in Cordoba, Spain = 514 columns make building into a forest of trees\

  • Palaces reflected the glory of Islam

  • Alhambra in Granada, Spain is finest Islamic palace


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