Mm4 addressing scheme for cdma community discussion
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MM4 Addressing Scheme for CDMA Community -Discussion. Richard Xu Chief Architect Aicent, Inc [email protected] Background. Identifying the MM4 interface at terminating MMSC How to identify the terminating MMSC’s MM4 interface given an E164 destination number?

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MM4 Addressing Scheme for CDMA Community -Discussion

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Mm4 addressing scheme for cdma community discussion

MM4 Addressing Scheme for CDMA Community-Discussion

Richard Xu

Chief Architect

Aicent, Inc

[email protected]


Background

Background

  • Identifying the MM4 interface at terminating MMSC

    • How to identify the terminating MMSC’s MM4 interface given an E164 destination number?

      • Static Mapping: +E164  MM4 domain  IP Address of MMSC

        • Not scalable on global scale

        • Not applicable in MNP mandatory countries

    • Unified MM4 naming scheme is needed

      • Unique MM4 name for each mobile operator’s MM4

      • Unified domain name scheme for MM4 interface

        • Given an E.164 what domain name should it map to?

          • mms.operator.com

          • mms.operator.net, etc.

        • What name scheme could allow MMSC to automatically compose the terminating MM4 domain name that leads to resolving the IP address of the terminating MM4 Interface?

        • GSMA PRD IR.52 recommends mms.mncXXX.mccXXX.gprs for all GSM Operators, an unique and unified name scheme for GSM community

      • Feasible address resolutions are available given an E.164 address

        • IMSI

        • Private EUNM


Background grx dns hierarchy

Background: GRX DNS Hierarchy

“ .“

Private to GPRS Operators

gprs

grx

mcc111

Managed by GSMA/GRX

mnc222

Managed by GPRS Operator

internet

mms

internet.mnc222.mcc111.gprs.

<IP of the operator GGSN>

mms.mnc222.mcc111.gprs.

<IP of MM4 Interface of MMSC>


Background imsi addressing resolution in gprs

Background IMSI Addressing Resolution in GPRS

SS7 Network

PLMN A

STP

DNS

DNS

MMSC

(A)

MMSC

(B)

PLMN B

GRX Root DNS/ENUM

Addressing Resolution: IMSI

3

GRX

2

1

4

5

7

6

SRI_for_SM(MSISDN)

HLR

SRI_for_SM_Ack(IMSI)

  • 0. MMSC composes the query string based on the IMSI (mms.mnc222.mcc111.gprs)

  • MMSC queries local DNS (mms.mnc222.mcc111.gprs.)

  • Local DNS queries GRX root DNS for (mnc222.mcc111.gprs.)

  • GRX root DNS returns NS record for mncxxx.mccxxx.gprs.

  • Local DNS queries remote DNS for MX record (mms.mnc222.mcc111.gprs.)

  • Remote DNS returns FQDN for MX of mms.mnc222.mcc111.gprs.

  • Local DNS queries remote DNS again for FQDN of MMSC host (server1.mms.mnc222.mcc111.gprs.)

  • Local DNS returns IP address of remote MMSC host


Mm4 addressing scheme for cdma community discussion

Background: Private ENUM in GPRS

Addressing Resolution: Private ENUM

- Extending existing GRX DNS Hierarchy to support ENUM

GRX Root DNS

Root

Local GPRS DNS

.gprs

.mccxxx

mncxxx.mccxxx.gprs

GPRS

.mncxxx

.e164

APN1

2.5.8 (HKG)

4.4. (UK)

0.2.0.9.e164.gprs

APN n

1. (NANP)

ENUM

0.2.0.9.

4.3.2.1

2.3.8.8.0.4.

8.7.8.6.7.7.

5.3.2.1


Mm4 addressing scheme for cdma community discussion

PLMN A

DNS ENUM

MMSC

(A)

MMSC

(B)

DNS ENUM

PLMN B

GRX Root DNS/ENUM

Background ENUM Addressing Resolution in GPRS

Addressing Resolution: Private ENUM

  • Pure IP based solution, a proven scalable DNS architecture

3

GRX

2

1

4

5

7

6

  • MMSC queries local ENUM (x.x.x.8.0.4.1.e164.gprs.)

  • Local ENUM queries GRX root ENUM for 8.0.4.1.e164.gprs

  • GRX root ENUM returns NS record for 8.0.4.1.e164.gprs.

  • Local DNS queries remote ENUM for NAPTR record of 8.0.4.1.e164.gprs.

  • Remote ENUM returns NAPTR Records (mms:[email protected])

  • Local ENUM queries remote ENUM again for MX of MMSC domain (mms.mncxxx.mccxxx.gprs)

  • Local ENUM resolved IP of remote MMSC host


Background1

Background

  • Key Aspects of DNS and Naming Scheme of MM4 within GPRS Community

    • MM4 Interface is only opened to other GPRS Operators

      • TLD=gprs can only be resolved within GPRS/GRX DNS Hierarchy

      • TLD=gprs is private to GPRS community.

      • Public DNS has no knowledge of GPRS domain

    • MM4 name is unique to each mobile operator

      • Uniqueness of (MNC, MCC)

    • Scalable addressing resolution leverage DNS

      • Automatic generating query string based on given +E164 number

        • +1234567  IMSI mms.mncXXX.mccXXX.gprs

      • DNS query to identify IP address of MM4 interface


Mm4 naming scheme for cdma

MM4 Naming Scheme for CDMA

  • Considerations:

    • Uniqueness for each CDMA Operators

    • Closeness within CDMA operators

    • Resulting in scalable addressing resolutions

    • Interoperable with existing GPRS community


Mm4 naming scheme for cdma1

MM4 Naming Scheme for CDMA

  • Uniqueness:

    • (MNC, MCC) pair is unique to all mobile Operators

      • Sub-domain, mms.mncXXX.mccXXX, is unique

    • However,

      • What is the mechanism that could associate an +E164 number with IMSI within CDMA community?

      • Do all CDMA operator support IMSI?

    • Assuming IMSI is supported in CDMA Mobile Network

      • What TLD should be created instead of .gprs?

        • TLD=CDMA is too CDMA specific. No viable for Global IOP

        • TLD=3gppnetwork.org is also supported within GPRS/GRX DNS hierarchy, is it too GSM specific?

        • If TLD=3gppnetwork.org is still too GSM specific, will TLD=net.mobile or something unique to all mobile operators is the right TLD for all mobile operators?

      • The bottom line is to find name scheme that fits to all mobile operators, and globally unique.


Mm4 naming scheme for cdma2

MM4 Naming Scheme for CDMA

  • Closeness:

    • Mainly for security concern

    • MM4 interface is meant to be opened to other mobile operators

      • CDMA Operators should have their own common DNS hierarchy to support all roaming and inter-working applications needs

      • Such DNS can be achieved within CDMA packet data roaming infrastructure

      • Open to GSM community for global interoperability


Mm4 naming scheme for cdma3

MM4 Naming Scheme for CDMA

  • Addressing Resolution:

    • Given MM4 name scheme, addressing resolution could be developed as

      • IMSI+DNS based addressing resolution

        • +E164  IMSI (MNC, MCC) mms.mncXXX.mccXXX.TLD

      • Private ENUM

        • +E164  1.2.3.4.5.6.7.e164.TLD  NAPTR (MM4 domain=mms.mncXXX.mccXXX.TLD)


Mm4 naming scheme for cdma4

MM4 Naming Scheme for CDMA

  • Global Interoperability:

    • The key for global interoperability is to have an common TLD for all mobile operators, GSM and CDMA.

      • E.g., any given +E164 number

        • +E164 mms.mncXXX.mccXXX.TLD

        • There would be no confusion for each MMSC on which TLD domain to use when composing the query string.

      • Single Hierarchy DNS structure among all mobile operators

        • GRX Root DNS controls and manages those GSM subdomains, while CDMA Root DNS manages those of CDMA operators

        • Two Root exchange zone information and allows queries from each others to achieve global interoperability


Open to discussion

Open to discussion

  • Is (MNC, MCC) viable among CDMA Operators?

  • Is there any mechanism to map an E164 to an IMSI within CDMA network?

  • Is 3gppnetwork.org too GSM specific?

  • What TLD would be appropriate to both CDMA and GSM communities?

  • ???


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