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IP Addressing Scheme (Topic 4). Textbook: Networking Basics, CCNA 1 Companion Guide , Cisco Press Cisco Networking Academy Program, CCNA 1 and 2, Companion Guide , Cisco Press, Latest Edition. IP Address Fundamentals. Logical address

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Ip addressing scheme topic 4 l.jpg

IP Addressing Scheme(Topic 4)

Textbook:

Networking Basics, CCNA 1 Companion Guide, Cisco Press

Cisco Networking Academy Program, CCNA 1 and 2, Companion Guide, Cisco Press, Latest Edition

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


Ip address fundamentals l.jpg
IP Address Fundamentals

  • Logical address

  • IPv4 (32 bits, usually in dotted-decimal, e.g. 192.168.123.1)

  • Must be unique inside a particular network

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


Address assignment 1 l.jpg
Address Assignment (1)

  • All hosts on the same LAN must use the same value for the first part of their IP addresses (length depends on size of the network)

  • IP addresses are assigned to network interfaces rather than to entire computers

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Address Assignment (2)

  • ipconfig

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Address Assignment (3)

  • 3 key rules

    • Devices on the same LAN must use IP addresses in the same group (IP network)

    • Devices on different LANs that are separated by at least one router must use IP addresses in different IP networks

    • IP addresses must be unique inside the same internetwork

  • Fig 9-13

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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  • Three networks

    • All IP addresses that begin with 10

    • All IP addresses that begin with 11

    • All IP addresses that begin with 12

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Network Classes (1)

  • Unicast IP address

    • An IP address that can be assigned to a single interface

  • IPv4 defines 3 three classes of unicast IP addresses, determined by the value of the first octet of the address

  • An address includes two parts (no subnetting)

    • network part

    • host part

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Network Classes (2)

  • Fig 9-14

  • A unicast IP address determines its class and structure, specifically, the size of the network and host parts of the address

  • An IP network consists of all unicast IP addresses for which the network part’s value is the same

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Network Classes (3)

  • Fig 9-15

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Network Classes (4)

  • IPv4 uses class D IP addresses to multicast packets to a multicast destination IP address (all hosts will receive a copy of the packet)

  • Table 9-7

  • Values of 0 and 127 are not listed in the first octet

    • 127.0.0.1, loopback IP address

    • Network 0.0.0.0 has been reserved

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Network Classes (5)

  • IP network number (network ID) is a dotted-decimal number that represents a particular IP network. E.g. 10.0.0.0

  • First and last number in a network are reserved

    • 10.0.0.0 (network ID)

    • 10.255.255.255 (network broadcast address)

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Network Classes (6)

  • Fig 9-17

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Number of Hosts per Network

  • Depends on number of bits of the Host part

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Number of Class A, B, C Networks

  • Depends on number of bits of the network part

  • How many class A? 28 ? 28 – 2 ?

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Subnetting (1)

  • Subnetting allows the network designer to subdivide a classful IP network into smaller groups, called subnets

  • Class A network 10.0.0.0, was divided into three subnets

    • 10.1.1

    • 10.1.2

    • 10.1.3

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Subnetting (2)

  • Key rules

    • Devices on the same LAN must use IP addresses in the same group (IP subnet)

    • Devices on different LANs that are separated by at least one router must use IP addresses in different IP subnet

    • IP addresses must be unique inside the same internetwork

  • Subnet: A group of IP addresses that all have the same value in the first part of the address

  • Subnet number: A dotted-decimal number that represents a particular IP subnet

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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  • Three subnets

    • IP addresses beginning with 10.1.1

    • IP addresses beginning with 10.1.2

    • IP addresses beginning with 10.1.3

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Various Views of Subnetted IP Addresses

  • Fig 9-19

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Subnet Mask

  • To find out the network (and subnet) parts of an IP address, thus determine whether two hosts are in the same network

  • To determine if the network is subnetted

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Ensuring Unique IP Addresses Throughout the Internet

  • Unique IP addresses on all computers?

  • Unique Network Address for Each Enterprise Network

  • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), IANA member organizations

  • IPv4 Address Depletion

    • NAT, Private IP Networks

    • IPv6 (128 bits)

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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NAT and Private IP Networks (1)

  • NAT allows a company to use just a few registered IP addresses instead of an entire registered Class A, B, or C networks

  • Fig 9-21

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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NAT and Private IP Networks (2)

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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IPv4 Vs IPv6

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Assigning and Mapping IP Addresses

  • A planning process

  • Two popular methods

    • Static IP Address Configuration

    • Dynamic configuration using (DHCP)

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Static IP Address Configuration

  • Fixed IP addresses entered by users

  • Key Config Options

    • IP address, Subnet mask, Default gateway, DNS server

  • Fig 9-23

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme



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Dynamic IP Config Using DHCP

  • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

  • DHCP allows a host that does not have a static IP address configured on an interface to send a request to a DHCP server

  • The server then sends back a DHCP reply (IP address that can be used, mask, default gateway, and DNS server, and other control information)

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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DHCP Mechanism

  • Fig 9-26

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Advantages of using DHCP

  • When companies move employees and their PCs, the PCs can be installed in the new offices, send a DHCP request, and be up and running

  • Laptop computers can be moved all over a network (company, home, hotel…)

  • DHCP server can keep statistics of the usage of IP addresses

  • DHCP reclaims the IP address once the lease expires so another host can use the IP addresses

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Why use Static IP

  • Server IP addresses need to stay the same

  • Routers, switches need to stay at the same IP addresses

  • End-user hosts do not move often

  • Network administration

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Using ARP

  • For an IP host to send an IP packet over a LAN, the sending host must know the Ethernet MAC address of another device on the LAN

  • By Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme



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ARP Process

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme


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Using IP ARP in Larger Network

CIM 2465 IP Addressing Scheme



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