british and french activities in egypt
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BRITISH AND FRENCH ACTIVITIES IN EGYPT. British and French traders were trading with the Sudan Use of the Red Sea as a shorter route to India. French and British merchants. Looking for Ivory in the Sudan

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british and french activities in egypt

BRITISH AND FRENCH ACTIVITIES IN EGYPT

British and French traders were trading with the Sudan

Use of the Red Sea as a shorter route to India

french and british merchants
French and British merchants
  • Looking for Ivory in the Sudan
  • Building of the Suez in 1869 by French engineer. Linking Mediterranean to the Red sea, a shorter route to India.
  • Suez canal was financed by British, French and Egyptian finances
  • Britain also constructs many railways connecting important ports –tools of exploitation
  • The trading facilities also benefited Arabs in the area
british worried
British worried
  • Britain becomes afraid that Arabs might endanger shipping in the Suez.
  • During this time, Egyptian ruler Khedive Ismail took 2 dangerous policies-expansion to Sudan to get slaves for his army & modernization of Egypt.
  • These were expensive ventures and also due to financial mismanagement Egypt became bankrupt
egypt bankrupt
Egypt bankrupt
  • Borrowed heavily to survive.
  • Britain and France intervened and took charge of
  • Egyptian finances and Britain took Egyptian shares in the Suez Canal
  • Egyptians not happy that their country is mortgaged Hence a revolt
  • to rid Egypt of foreigners led by Arabi Pasha.
  • Britain and France due to heavy financial commitment in
  • the Suez could not let anarchy in Egypt since the route
  • would be risky hence Britain invaded and occupied Egypt and
  • crushed Arabis forces thinking their invasion was temporary the were dam wrong
egypt taken for economic reasons
Egypt taken for economic reasons
  • With majority shares in the Suez, Britain slowly started to push the French out so as to control the Suez, a great trade route to East.
  • Britain cannot leave Egypt which is now a major trading center and Suez very strategic
the french
The French
  • France does not want to leave they too had put
  • money into the Suez, secondly they believed
  • Egypt was part of their heritage from Napoleon
  • Bonaparte who invaded Egypt in 1798.
  • So 18180s Britain and France struggling to
  • control the Nile and Suez.
  • So Britain signed a treaty with Germany in 1893 to stop
  • Germans expansion from Cameroon.
  • Britain determined to lock all powers out of Egypt and protect the waters of the Nile
france and britain clash
France and Britain clash
  • France was not happy, she was swindled out of Egypt.
  • Hence France starts westward expansion
  • deliberately seeking possibilities of reaching the
  • Nile, Dam it , divert the waters and frustrate Britain in Egypt since the Nile is the lifeline of Egypt .
  • In Britain the trading merchants in London and the newspapers saw Egypt as part of their larger Global possessions
france and the egyptian question
France and the Egyptian Question
  • In France the Egyptian Question was revisited by new leaders who adopted a combative foreign Policy towards Britain.
  • Men ready to assert the prestige of France
  • Hence intensified difficulties for Britain.
  • Saw British occupation as an affront to their national pride ,so the Nile became their project
britain s reaction
Britain\'s reaction
  • London issued a warning that the French should not make a “mistake", But France began to advance their forces.
  • British public were incited by the newspapers and the country developed an aggressive mood and all supported the Egyptian occupation.
  • The British believed Africa could be another India.
britain s actions
Britain decided to stay and defend the Nile water wherever it may be so Sudan& Uganda have to be taken as well.

Britain\'s Prime minister lord Salisbury gave a go head to contain France,

Therefore General H.H. Kitchener and his Anglo-Egyptian army got ready.

The French were advancing their troops led by Captain J.P.Marchand.

Britain\'s actions
the clash
the clash
  • For 2 months the great powers, Britain under
  • Kitchener and France under Marchand stood at
  • the brink of war ready to strike at each other mobilizing
  • at Fashoda. just to own and control the Nile.
  • However due to other European intervention they called
  • off the war and signed the Anglo- French agreement of
  • 1899 where France was excluded from the Nile basin
  • and Britain enjoyed the monopoly
  • .
  • The Fashoda crisis was a British old policy of imperial defense
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