British and french activities in egypt
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BRITISH AND FRENCH ACTIVITIES IN EGYPT. British and French traders were trading with the Sudan Use of the Red Sea as a shorter route to India. French and British merchants. Looking for Ivory in the Sudan

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British and french activities in egypt


British and French traders were trading with the Sudan

Use of the Red Sea as a shorter route to India

French and british merchants

French and British merchants

  • Looking for Ivory in the Sudan

  • Building of the Suez in 1869 by French engineer. Linking Mediterranean to the Red sea, a shorter route to India.

  • Suez canal was financed by British, French and Egyptian finances

  • Britain also constructs many railways connecting important ports –tools of exploitation

  • The trading facilities also benefited Arabs in the area

British worried

British worried

  • Britain becomes afraid that Arabs might endanger shipping in the Suez.

  • During this time, Egyptian ruler Khedive Ismail took 2 dangerous policies-expansion to Sudan to get slaves for his army & modernization of Egypt.

  • These were expensive ventures and also due to financial mismanagement Egypt became bankrupt

Egypt bankrupt

Egypt bankrupt

  • Borrowed heavily to survive.

  • Britain and France intervened and took charge of

  • Egyptian finances and Britain took Egyptian shares in the Suez Canal

  • Egyptians not happy that their country is mortgaged Hence a revolt

  • to rid Egypt of foreigners led by Arabi Pasha.

  • Britain and France due to heavy financial commitment in

  • the Suez could not let anarchy in Egypt since the route

  • would be risky hence Britain invaded and occupied Egypt and

  • crushed Arabis forces thinking their invasion was temporary the were dam wrong

Egypt taken for economic reasons

Egypt taken for economic reasons

  • With majority shares in the Suez, Britain slowly started to push the French out so as to control the Suez, a great trade route to East.

  • Britain cannot leave Egypt which is now a major trading center and Suez very strategic

The french

The French

  • France does not want to leave they too had put

  • money into the Suez, secondly they believed

  • Egypt was part of their heritage from Napoleon

  • Bonaparte who invaded Egypt in 1798.

  • So 18180s Britain and France struggling to

  • control the Nile and Suez.

  • So Britain signed a treaty with Germany in 1893 to stop

  • Germans expansion from Cameroon.

  • Britain determined to lock all powers out of Egypt and protect the waters of the Nile

France and britain clash

France and Britain clash

  • France was not happy, she was swindled out of Egypt.

  • Hence France starts westward expansion

  • deliberately seeking possibilities of reaching the

  • Nile, Dam it , divert the waters and frustrate Britain in Egypt since the Nile is the lifeline of Egypt .

  • In Britain the trading merchants in London and the newspapers saw Egypt as part of their larger Global possessions

France and the egyptian question

France and the Egyptian Question

  • In France the Egyptian Question was revisited by new leaders who adopted a combative foreign Policy towards Britain.

  • Men ready to assert the prestige of France

  • Hence intensified difficulties for Britain.

  • Saw British occupation as an affront to their national pride ,so the Nile became their project

Britain s reaction

Britain's reaction

  • London issued a warning that the French should not make a “mistake", But France began to advance their forces.

  • British public were incited by the newspapers and the country developed an aggressive mood and all supported the Egyptian occupation.

  • The British believed Africa could be another India.

Britain s actions

Britain decided to stay and defend the Nile water wherever it may be so Sudan& Uganda have to be taken as well.

Britain's Prime minister lord Salisbury gave a go head to contain France,

Therefore General H.H. Kitchener and his Anglo-Egyptian army got ready.

The French were advancing their troops led by Captain J.P.Marchand.

Britain's actions

The clash

the clash

  • For 2 months the great powers, Britain under

  • Kitchener and France under Marchand stood at

  • the brink of war ready to strike at each other mobilizing

  • at Fashoda. just to own and control the Nile.

  • However due to other European intervention they called

  • off the war and signed the Anglo- French agreement of

  • 1899 where France was excluded from the Nile basin

  • and Britain enjoyed the monopoly

  • .

  • The Fashoda crisis was a British old policy of imperial defense

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