Adaptations. How did the tiger get its stripes?. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/GreatCats. How did the anteater get such a long tongue?. http://nationalzoo.si.edu/Animals/GreatCats. Why are there so many cypress trees in the swamp?.
Variations: Each toucan has a unique color pattern
Adaptations: The toucan's beak is adapted to grab and crush fruit and nuts. It is strong like a nutcracker.
(Only in cartoons do they use their beaks to transport fish to safety!)
Process by which individuals who are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than other members of the same species.
Favorable traits are “selected” over unfavorable traits.
The peppered moth comes in light and dark
(melanic) forms. Pollution from the Industrial
Revolution darkened the tree trunks in the moths’
ecosystem, mostly by killing the light-coloured
covering lichen (plus soot).
The lighter forms, which had been well camouflaged against the light background, now ‘stood out,’ and so birds more readily ate them. Therefore, the proportion of dark moths increased dramatically. Later, as pollution was cleaned up, the light moth became predominant again.
The shift in moth numbers was carefully documented through catching them in traps. Release-recapture experiments confirmed that in polluted forests, more of the dark form survived for recapture, and vice versa. In addition, birds were filmed preferentially eating the less camouflaged moths off tree trunks.
Peppered moths resting on three different tree trunks. (left) Two moths (one typical and one melanic) resting on the dark bark of an oak tree near the industrial city of Liverpool, U.K. (center) The same two moths on a nearby beech tree covered by a combination of green algae and lichen. (right) Typical and melanic moths resting on light-colored lichen on an oak tree in rural Wales. Note the striking differences in camouflage efficiency.
The gradual changes or evolution of horses over time
help them catch and kill their prey
Shark’s Sharp Teeth
Owl’s big eyes
Cheetah’s ability to sprint
Jellyfish’s poisonous tentacles
Sticky goo in carnivorous plants
help them avoid becoming prey
Alertness & speed of deer/antelope
Smelly spray of a skunk
Warning color of poison dart frogs
Mimicry – when animal looks like a more dangerous one
Dead leaf mantis
Developed within the lifetime of an organism
Things organisms do to survive
Example: dog salivating when they hear a bell
Example: Large Muscles, bird calls, migration
Controlled by genes
Inherited from one generation to the next
Example: Human height, fur on a bear, beak of a bird
The 2 on the right are plains pocket mice, Perognathus flavescens
The 2 on the left are rock pocket mice, Perognathus intermedius
If you were a hawk, which mouse would you most likely eat from this forest floor? Why?
When the environment changes, the types of adaptations that are beneficial also may change.
Now, pretend the forest floor is covered with snow – now which mouse would the hawk most likely eat?
What if one of these birds were to have just slightly better eyesight than the others?
What if one of these male frogs were able to croak just a little louder than the other frogs?
What adaptations can you identify in these organisms?