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USING THE CHEMICAL EQUATION LIKE A RECIPE. STOICHIOMETRY. Stoichiometry. What is It? Quantitative relationships In chemical reactions Based on law of Conservation of Mass Why/How is it Useful? . Straight from Wikipedia.

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  • What is It?

    • Quantitative relationships

    • In chemical reactions

    • Based on law of Conservation of Mass

  • Why/How is it Useful?

Straight from Wikipedia

  • Stoichiometry (pron.: /ˌstɔɪkiˈɒmɨtri/) is a branch of chemistry that deals with the relative quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. In a balanced chemical reaction, the relations among quantities of reactants and products typically form a ratio of positive integers. For example, in a reaction that forms ammonia (NH3), exactly one molecule of nitrogen (N2) reacts with three molecules of hydrogen (H2) to produce two molecules of NH3:

  • N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

Stoichiometry is a lot like making tacos.

Taco Recipe

What if I need to make tacos for 50 people?

  • 1o shells

  • 1 lb ground beef

  • 1 pkg of taco seasoning

  • ¾ c water

  • ½ cup salsa

  • 1 cup cheddar cheese

  • 1 cup of lettuce

    Makes 10 tacos.

  • You know how much product you need (tacos)

  • You have to calculate how much of each ingredient you need.

  • That’s stoichiometry!!!!

  • Equations are a chemist’s recipe.

    • Equations tell chemists

      • what amounts of reactants to mix and what amounts of products to expect.

  • If you know the quantity of one substance in a reaction

    • you can calculate the quantity of any other substance consumed or created in the reaction

    • Quantitymeaning the amount of a substance in grams, liters, molecules, or moles.

Balanced Chemical Equations

  • The coefficients in a balanced chemical equation shows how many moles/particles of one reactant are needed to react with other reactants and how many moles/particles of product will be formed.

  • Based on Law of Conservation of Mass

    4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3

4Fe + 3O2 2Fe2O3

  • Write the relationships we can derive from this equation.

C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O

  • The combustion of propane provides energy for heating homes, cooking food, and soldering metal parts. Interpret the equation for the combustion of propane in terms of particles, moles, and mass.

  • Show that the law of conservation of mass is observed

C3H8 + 5O2 3CO2 + 4H2O

  • The calculation of quantities in chemical reactions is called stoichiometry.

  • Imagine you are in charge of manu-facturing for Rugged Rider Bicycle Company.

  • The business plan for Rugged Rider requires the production of 128 custom-made bikes each day.

  • You are responsible for insuring that there are enough parts at the start of each day.

An Analogy for Stoichiometry

  • Assume that the major components of the bike are the frame (F), the seat (S), the wheels (W), the handlebars (H), and the pedals (P).

  • The finished bike has a “formula” of FSW2HP2.

  • The balanced equation for the production of 1 bike is.

F +S+2W+H+2P FSW2HP2

  • Now in a 5 day workweek, Rugged Riders is scheduled to make 640 bikes. How many wheels should be in the plant on Monday morning to make these bikes?

  • What do we know?

    • Number of bikes = 640 bikes

    • 1 FSW2HP2=2W (balanced eqn)

  • What is unknown?

    • # of wheels = ? wheels

1280 Wheels


  • The connection between wheels and bikes is 2 wheels per bike. We can use this information as a conversion factor to do the calculation.

2 W

640 FSW2HP2


  • We can make the same kinds of connections from a chemical rxn eqn.

N2(g) + 3H2(g)  2NH3(g)

  • The key is the “coefficient ratio”.

  • The coefficients of the balanced chemical equation indicate the numbers of moles of reactants and products in a chemical reaction.

  • 1 mole of N2 reacts with 3 moles of H2 to produce 2moles of NH3.

    • N2 and H2 will always react to form ammonia in this 1:3:2 ratio of moles.

  • So if you started with 10 moles of N2 it would take 30 moles of H2 and would produce 20 moles of NH3

    • Using the coefficients, from the balanced equation as ratios to make connections between reactants and products, is the most important information that an equation provides.

      • Using this information, you can calculate the amounts of the reactants involved and the amount of product you might expect.

    Mole Ratios

    • Shows the mole-to-mole ratio between two of the substances in a balanced equation

    • Written from the coefficients of any two substances in the equation

    • This is a very important conversion and the key to solving stoichiometry problems.

    2Al + 3Br2 2AlBr3

    4 Fe + 3 O2 2 Fe2O3

    3 H2(g) + N2(g) 2 NH3(g)

    A mol ratio for H2 and N2

    A mol ratio for NH3 and H2

    Stoichiometric Calculations

    • How much product can be obtained from a given reaction?

    • How much reactant is needed to produce this much product?

    Review of Mole Conversions

    Three mole equalities

    1 mol = 6.02 x 1023particles

    1 mol = (molar mass) (from periodic table)

    1 mol= 22.4 L for a gas at STP

    Review practice

    • How many moles are in 5.0 x 1025 molecules of CO2?

    • What is the mass in grams of 0.250 moles of CO2?

    • How many moles of CO2 gas are in 100.0 L at STP?

    Types of Stoichiometry Calculations

    • Mole - Mole Calculations

      • Moles of Known  Moles of Unknown

    • Mole-Mass Calculations

      • Moles of Known  Mass of Unknown

    • Mass-Mole Calculations

      • Mass of Known  Moles of Unknown

    • Mass-Mass Calculations

      • Mass of Known  Mass of Unknown


    • The following reaction shows the synthesis of aluminum oxide.

    3O2(g) + 4Al(s)  2Al2O3(s)

    3O2(g) + 4Al(s)  2Al2O3(s)

    • If you only had 1.8 mols of Al how much product could you make?

    Mole Ratio

    3O2(g) + 4Al(s)  2Al2O3(s)

    • Solve for the unknown:

    2 mol Al2O3

    1.8 mol Al

    = 0.90mol


    4 mol Al

    • If you wanted to produce 24 moles of product how many moles of each reactant would you need?

    3O2(g) + 4Al(s)  2Al2O3(s)

    3O2(g) + 4Al(s)  2Al2O3(s)

    • Solve for the unknowns:

    4 mol Al

    24 mol Al2O3

    = 48 mol Al

    2 mol Al2O3

    3 mol O2

    24 mol Al2O3

    = 36 mol O2

    2 mol Al2O3

    Practice Problem

    How many moles of hydrogen will be produced if 0.44 mol of CaH2 reacts according to the following equation?

    CaH2 + 2H2O  Ca(OH)2 + 2H2

    Iron will react with oxygen to produce Iron III oxide. How many moles of Iron (III) oxide will be produced if 0.18 mol of Iron reacts?

    4 4 Fe + 3 O2 2 Fe2O3

    4 Fe + 3 O22 Fe2O3

    How many moles of Fe2O3 are produced when 6.0 moles O2 react?

    How many moles of Fe are needed to react with 12.0 moles of O2?


    • No lab balance measures moles directly, generally mass is the unit of choice.

    • From the mass of 1 reactant or product, the mass of any other reactant or product in a given chemical equation can be calculated, provided you have a balanced equation.

    • As in mole-mole calculations, the unknown can be either a reactant or a product.

    Example # 1 Mass-Mass

    Acetylene gas (C2H2) is produced by adding water to calcium carbide (CaC2).

    CaC2 + 2H2O  C2H2 + Ca(OH)2

    CaC2 + 2H2O  C2H2 + Ca(OH)2

    How many grams of C2H2 are produced by adding water to 5.00 g CaC2?

    1 mol CaC2

    Step 1: “Get to Moles!” in this case that can be done by using the Molar Mass of your given compound.

    5.0 g CaC2

    = .07813 mol


    64.0 g CaC2

    Step 2: Now we are ready for the KEY step…converting from mols of our given to mols of unknown using the mole ratio.

    1 mol C2H2

    .07813 mol


    = .07813 mol


    1 mol CaC2

    Step 3: Since we are asked for mass of our unknown in this problem, we need to use our molar mass of our unknown and convert our newly calculated mols into grams.

    26.0 g C2H2

    .07813 mol


    = 2.03 g C2H2

    1 mol C2H2

    Summary of 3 Steps of Stoichiometry Problems

    • Get to Moles of Given

    • Mole Ratio to calculate moles of unknown

    • Get to wanted final unit

    The double replacement reaction between Lead II nitrate and Potassium Iodide produces a bright yellow precipitate that can be used as a color additive in paint. How many grams of potassium iodide would we need to completely react 25.3 g of lead (II) nitrate?

    mass A  mols A  mols B  mass B

    Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI  PbI2 + 2 KNO3

    Pb(NO3)2 + 2 KI PbI2 + 2 KNO3

    1mol Pb(NO3)2

    2mol KI

    331.2g Pb(NO3)2

    1mol Pb(NO3)2

    166 g KI

    1mol KI

    25.3 g Pb(NO3)2

    = 25.4 g KI

    Practice Problems

    What mass of Barium chloride is needed to react completely with 46.8 g of Sodium phosphate according to the following equation?

    BaCl2 + Na3PO4  Ba3(PO4)2 + NaCl

    Another problem

    Use the equation to determine what mass of FeS must react to form 326g of FeCl2.

    FeS + 2HCl  H2S + FeCl2

    Moles of Known  Mass of Unknown

    • Find moles of unknown using the mole ratio.

    • Convert moles of unknown to mass of unknown.

    • Calculate the mass of carbon dioxide produced by the decomposition of 2.5 moles of copper(II) carbonate.

      CuCO3CuO + CO2

    Mass to Moles Calculations

    • Mass of known  moles of unknown

    • Convert mass of known to moles of known.

    • Use mole ratio to find moles of unknown.

    • Calculate the moles of water produced by the reaction of 20 grams of hydrogen gas with excess oxygen gas.

    • A balanced reaction equation indicates the relative numbers of moles of reactants and products.

    • We can expand our stoichiometric calculations to include any unit of measure that is related to the mole.

    • The given quantity can be expressed in numbers of particles, units of mass, or volumes of gases at STP.

    • The problems can include mass-volume, volume-volume, and particle-mass calculations.

    • In any of these problems

    • the given quantity is first converted to moles.

    • Then themole ratiofrom the balanced equation is used to convert from the moles of given to the number of moles of the unknown

    • Then the moles of the unknown are converted to the units that the problem requests.

    • The next slide summarizes these steps for all typical stoichiometric problems

    Stoichiometry Roadmap

    Coefficient mol U

    Moles Given

    Moles Unknown

    Coefficient mol G

    Balanced Equation

    1 mole

    22.4 L

    1 mole

    Molar mass

    22.4 L

    Molar mass

    1 mole

    1 mole

    Volume U

    Mass U

    Volume G

    Mass G

    Particles G

    Particles U

    Coefficient part U

    Coefficient part G

    How many molecules of O2 are produced when a sample of 29.2 g of H2O is decomposed by electrolysis according to this balanced equation:

    2H2O  2H2 + O2

    The last step in the production of nitric acid is the reaction of NO2 with H2O.

    How many liters of NO2 must react with water to produce 5.00x1022 molecules of NO?


    1 mol NO

    3 mol NO2

    5.0x1022 mol-ecules NO

    molecules A mols A mols B volume B

    1 mol NO

    6.02x1023 mol-ecules NO

    22.4 L NO2

    1 mol NO2

    = 5.58 L NO2

    C7H6O3 + C4H6O3 C9H8O4 + HC2H3O2

    Salicylic acid

    Acetic anhydride



    Aspirin can be made from a chemical reaction between the reactants salicylic acid and acetic anhydride. The products of the reaction are acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and acetic acid (vinegar). Our factory makes 125,000 100-count bottles of Bayer Aspirin/day. Each bottle contains 100 tablets, and each tablet contains 325mg of aspirin. How much in kgs + 10% for production problems, of each reactant must we have in order to meet production?

    Salicylic Acid:

    1 mol C7H6O3

    136.10g C7H6O3

    22,549.4 mols aspirin

    1 mol C7H6O3

    1 mol asp

    1 kg

    = 3068.97 kg salicylic acid + (306.897 g)

    1000 g

    = 3380 kg of salicylic acid

    Acetic Anhydride:

    1 mol C4H6O3

    102.06g C4H6O3

    22,549.4 mols aspirin

    1 mol C4H6O3

    1 mol asp

    1 kg

    = 2301.39 kg

    Acetic anhydride + 230.139 kg

    1000 g

    = 2530 kg Acetic anhydride


    4 Fe + 3 O2 2 Fe2O3

    How many grams of O2 are needed to produce 0.400 mol of Fe2O3?

    Calculating Mass of A Substance

    • Balance equation

    • Convert starting amount to moles

    • Use coefficients to write a mol-mol ratio

    • Convert from moles of known to moles of unknown

    • Convert moles of unknown to grams


    The reaction between H2 and O2 produces 13.1 g of water. How many grams of O2 reacted?

    Write the equation

    H2 (g) + O2 (g)H2O (g)

    Balance the equation

    2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)2 H2O (g)

    2 H2 (g) + O2 (g)2 H2O (g)

    ? g 13.1 g

    Points to Remember

    1. Read an equation in moles

    2. Convert given amount to moles

    3. Use mole ratio to find unknown moles

    4. Convert moles to grams

    moles (given)moles (unknown)

    grams (given)grams (unknown)

    How many O2 molecules will react with 505 grams of Na to form Na2O?

    4 Na + O2 2 Na2O

    Acetylene gas C2H2 burns in the oxyactylene torch for welding. How many grams of C2H2 are burned if the reaction produces 75.0 g of CO2?

    2 C2H2 + 5 O2 4 CO2 + 2 H2O

    Convert moles knownto moles of unknown

    Use Mole Ratio from Coefficients

    Moles of Unknown

    Moles of Known

    Convert grams to moles

    Convert moles to grams

    Mass of Known

    Mass of Unknown

    Limiting Reactants

    • The reactant that is not completely used up in the reaction

      • The limiting reactant is not present in sufficient quantity to react with all other reactants.

      • The reaction stops when the limiting reactant is completely consumed.

      • Any remaining reactants are considered "excess reactants".

      • The amount of product formed is determined by the "limiting reactant"

    Steps in solving a limiting reactant problem

    • 1. Write a balanced equation for the reaction.

    • 2. Convert both reactant quantities to moles.

    • 3. Determine the moles of product that could be formed by each reactant.

    • 4. The least amount in step #3 identifies the limiting reactant.

    • 5. Use that number of moles of product to determine the mass produced.

    An example of a limiting reactant problem

    • What mass of water can be produced by 4 grams of H2 reacting with 16 grams of O2?

    Remember the following things about limiting reactants:

    • The reaction will stop when the reactants are used up.

    • If one reactant is used up before the other, the reaction stops then.

    • The first reactant used up is the limiting reactant, use it for the calculation.

    • The other reactant is the excess reactant.

    • Step 1. Write a balanced equation for the reaction.

    • 2 H2 + O2 2 H2O

      • Step 2. Convert both reactant quantities to moles.

    • Step 3. Using the mole ratio from the equation, determine the moles of water that could be formed by each reactant.

    • Step 4. Oxygen produces the least amount of water.

    • 16 grams of oxygen cannot produce as much water as 4 grams of hydrogen. In other words, 16 grams of oxygen will be used up in the reaction before 4 grams of hydrogen.

    • Oxygen is the "limiting" reactant.

    • Use oxygen for the calculation of product amount.

    • Step 5.Complete the problem by converting moles of H2O to mass of H2O.


    Suppose you are preparing cheese sandwiches. Each sandwich requires 2 pieces of bread and 1 slice of cheese. If you have 4 slices of cheese and 10 pieces of bread, how many cheese sandwiches can you make?

    Cheese Sandwich Products

    Sandwich 1

    + + =

    Sandwich 2

    + + =

    How many sandwiches can you make?

    ____ slices of bread

    + ____ slices of cheese

    = ____ sandwiches

    What is left over? ________________

    What is the limiting reactant?

    How many sandwiches can you make?

    __10__ slices of bread

    + __4__ slices of cheese

    = __4__sandwiches

    What is left over? _2 slices of bread

    What is the limiting reactant? cheese

    Hints for LR Problems

    1. For each reactant amount given, calculate the

    moles (or grams) of a product it could produce.

    2.The reactant that produces the smaller amount of product is the limiting reactant.

    3. The number of moles of product produced by the limiting reactant is ALL the product possible. There is no more limiting reactant left.


    25 grams of hydrogen and 25 grams of oxygen react to produce water. How much water is produced?

    Percent Yield

    • Theoretical yield: Maximum amount of product that can be obtained from a given amount of reactant.

    • A reaction rarely produces maximum amount. Things do not go perfectly.

    • From the calculation (equation)

    • Actual Yield: The amount actually produced.

    Percent Yield

    • In all of the calculations we have done thus far the amount of product we have calculated has been determined in perfect lab conditions. This means everything goes exactly right. Everything is ideal. 

    • This yield of product is called Theoretical Yield

    • Theoretical yield is obtained from stoichiometric calculations.

    • However, in real lab situations, conditions don’t always work out perfectly.

    • When an experiment is carried out it is nice to be able to determine how efficiently a reaction has proceeded.

    • This can be done by determining the actual yield produced in the experiment and then using an equation called percent yield.

    • Percent yield is the ratio of the actual amount of product to the theoretical amount of product.


    • Percent Yield = Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield x 100


    • You produced 2.5 grams of magnesium oxide in a reaction of magnesium with excess oxygen. Calculate the percent yield for this reaction.

    Percent Yield

    You prepared cookie dough to make 5 dozen cookies. The phone rings while a sheet of 12 cookies is baking. You talk too long and the cookies burn. You throw them out (or give them to your dog.) The rest of the cookies are okay.

    How many cookies could you have made (theoretical yield)?

    How many cookies did you actually make to eat? (Actual yield)


    Actual yield is the amount of product actually recovered from an experiment

    Theoretical (possible) yield is the maximum

    amount of product that could be produced from

    the reactant. Calculated Yield.

    Percent Yield is the actual yield compared to the maximum (theoretical yield) possible.

    Percent Yield Calculation

    What is the percent yield of cookies?

    Percent Yield = Actual Yield (g) recovered X 100Possible Yield (g)

    % cookie yield = 48 cookies x 100 = 80% yield

    60 cookies

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