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Religion. AP Human Geography. What is religion?. Religion is a set of common beliefs and practices generally held by a group of people . Religion is human beings\' relation to the things that they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine .

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religion

Religion

AP Human Geography

what is religion
What is religion?
  • Religion is a set of common beliefs and practices generally held by a group of people.
  • Religion is human beings\' relation to the things that they regard as holy, sacred, spiritual, or divine.
  • Humans often get their sense of purpose and moral values from religion.
  • Religious beliefs are found in virtually every society throughout human history.
what questions does religion answer
What questions does religion answer?
  • Origins (where did we come from?)
  • Purpose/meaning (why are we here?)
  • Destiny (where are we going? what happens when we die?)
  • Who are we? (the nature of human nature)
  • Who/what is god? (the nature of Ultimate Reality)
universalizing vs ethnic religions
Universalizing vs. Ethnic Religions

Universalizing

Ethnic

  • Global
  • Appeals to all people
  • Location does not matter
  • Ex. Christianity, Buddhism, Islam
  • Local
  • Appeals to one group of people in one place
  • Ex. Judaism, Hinduism, Taoism, Shinto
mono vs poly theism
Mono vs. Poly Theism

Monotheism

Polytheism

  • Belief in one god.
  • Ex. Judaism, Christianity, Islam
  • Belief in multiple gods.
  • Ex. Hinduism, Animism.
divisions within a religion
Divisions Within a Religion
  • Branch- large and fundamental division within a religion.
    • Ex. Islam in divided into Sunni and Shia
    • Ex. Christianity is divided into Catholic, Protestant, and East Orthodox
  • Denomination- division of a single branch.
    • Ex. Protestant denominations include Baptist, Lutheran, and Methodist.
  • Sect- a small group that has broken away from the larger denomination.
universalizing christianity
Universalizing: Christianity
  • Origin: Jerusalem (30 AD)
  • Founder: Jesus Christ (based on Judaism)
  • Diffusion: Roman Empire, European Colonization, Missionaries
  • Holy Book: Bible (Old and New Testament)
  • Major Branches: Catholic, Protestant, E. Orthodox
  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:
    • Jesus was messiah that the Jews were waiting for/ son of God
    • Died on the cross to save humans from sin
    • Belief in Resurrection=heaven
  • Holy Places: Vatican, Church of Holy Sepulchre.
  • Modern Locations: All continents, predom. In NA, SA, EUR, AUS.
  • Followers: Over 2 billion
universalizing islam
Universalizing: Islam
  • Origin: Saudi Arabia (622 AD)
  • Founder: Mohammad (based on Judaism)
  • Diffusion: Arab armies
  • Holy Book: Quran
  • Major Branches: Sunni, Shiite (Shia)
  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:
    • 5 Pillars of Islam
    • Mohammed is most impt. Prophet
    • Jesus is prophet, but not as impt. As Mohammed
  • Holy Places: Mecca (Ka’ba), Medina
  • Modern Locations: SW Asia (Middle East), N. Africa, Central Asia, Southern Asia. Also Europe and NA.
  • Followers: 1.3 billion
universalizing buddhism
Universalizing: Buddhism
  • Origin: Nepal (530 BC)
  • Founder: Siddhartha Gautama, original Buddha.
  • Diffusion: Magadhan Empire, merchants (China)
  • Holy Book: n/a
  • Major Branches: Mahayana, Theravada, Tantrayana.
  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:
    • Four Noble Truths (Desire= Suffering)
    • Eightfold Path
    • Nirvana
    • Can follow other religions
  • Holy Places: 8 holy shrines, 4 miracle sites, all connect to Buddha.
  • Modern Locations: China, SE Asia
  • Followers: 400 million
ethnic hinduism
Ethnic: Hinduism
  • Origin: 2500-1500 BC
  • Founder: No specific founder
  • Diffusion: Little diffusion, relocation
  • Holy Book: no single holy book
  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:
    • Individual decides best way to worship god
    • Many paths to god
    • Polytheistic
    • No rigid rules
  • Holy Places: many (natural features, shrines, Ganges river)
  • Modern Locations: India (97%), Nepal
  • Followers: 900 million
ethnic judaism
Ethnic: Judaism
  • Origin: Canaan (Israel) (2000 BC)
  • Founder: Abraham
  • Diffusion: Diaspora to Europe, to U.S. and Israel post- WWII
  • Holy Book: Torah (Old Testament)
  • Core Beliefs/ Teachings:
    • Ten Commandments
    • Monotheism
    • Still waiting for Messiah
  • Holy Places: Jerusalem, Western Wall, Mt. Sinai
  • Modern Locations: Israel (1/3), U.S. (1/3), rest of world (1/3)
  • Followers: 14 million
other ethnic religions
Other Ethnic Religions
  • Confucianism (China)
    • Ethical principals for daily life
  • Daoism/ Taoism (China)
    • Based on teachings of Lao-Zi
  • Shinto (Japan)
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