FGM
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FGM. By: Sozan Fathi. FGM. World Health Organization  (WHO)  "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.". History.

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Fgm

FGM

By: SozanFathi


Fgm

FGM

World Health Organization (WHO) 

  • "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons."


History

History

  • Girls in AncientEgypt 163 B.C

  •  Evidence from MUMMIES - both Type I and Type III - pharaonic circumcision

  • might be a cultural relic from pre-monotheistic African tribal religions

  • concentrated in Islamic areas

  • the Qur'an –Islamicholybook, femalegenital cutting is not commanded

  • "Circumcision is Sunnah for men and an honorable thing for women.“ Prophet Mohammad

  • England and the United States- the 19th century to "cure" insanity, masturbation, and nymphomania

  • Isaac Baker Brown (1812–1873)

  • Sigmund Freud "Elimination of the clitoris is a prerequisite for the development of femininity."


Classifications of fgm

classificationsof FGM

  • TypeI : removal of the clitorial hood

  • Type II : Clitoridectomy

  • TypeIII: Infundibulation

  • TypeIV: miscellaneousacts


Type iii

TypeIII

  • infibulation or pharaonic circumcision, is the removal of all external genitalia

  • Left is a hole - for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, which is created by inserting a twig or rock salt into the wound

  • legs are then tied together from hip to ankle for around 40 days to allow the wound to heal

  • The immobility causes the labial tissue to bond, forming a wall of flesh and skin across the entire vulva

  • pregnant woman who has not experienced FGM, the procedure is performed before she gives birth, because it is believed the baby may be stillborn if it touches her clitoris


When and how

WHEN AND HOW

  • girls a few days old to puberty

  • By a traditional circumciser

  • withoutanaesthesia

  • Withoutsterile equipment

  • using a knife, razor, scissors, cut glass, sharpened rocks, fingernails

  • suturing material such as agave or acaciathorns


Prevalence

Prevalence

  • 100–140 million women and girls around the world have experienced the procedure, including 92 million in Africa

  • practisedin 28 countries in western, eastern, and north-eastern Africa

  • in parts of Asia and the Middle East,

  • and within some immigrant communities in Europe, North America, and Australasia


Prevalence1

Prevalence

  • Somalia, Djibouti and Guinea 98%

  • Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Gambia, Mali, Sudan and Sierra Leone 90%

  • Chad, Guina Bissau, Liberia, Kenya, Mauritania and Togo 50-70%


Immediate complications

Immediate complications

  • painful

  • Bleeding – fatal (10%)

  • Hypovolemic shock -fatal

  • Acute urinary retention

  • Urinary infection 

  • Wound infection

  • Septicemia

  • Tetanus

  • Hepatitis

  • HIV  


Late complications

Late complications

  •  formation of scars and keloids

  • damage to urethra and bladder with infections and incontinence

  • vaginal and pelvic infections

  • Dysmenorrhes

  • Dyspareunia

  • INFERTILITY

  • epidermoid cysts

  • chronic pain

  • Complete obstruction


Reinfibulation and defibulation

Reinfibulation and defibulation

  • Women may request reinfibulation (RI)—the restoration of the infibulation—after birth, cuts are made around the vagina, then sutures are put in place to tighten it to the size of a pinhole

  • RI may also be carried out just before marriage, after divorce, or even in elderly women to prepare them for death

  • Defibulation, or deinfibulation, is a surgical technique to reverse the closure of the vaginal opening after a Type III infibulation, and consists of a vertical cut opening up normal access to the vagina, removal of scar tissue and labial repair and a new clitoris


Fgm

why

  • Motherhood- not called"mother" when she has children if she is uncircumcised

  • a newborn child has elements of both sexes- cleansed by the removal of "male” body parts

  • unclean to handle food and water

  • raising a girl properly

  • a woman's genitals might continue to grow without FGM, until they dangle between her legs

  • ensures pre-marital virginity and inhibits extra-marital sex, because it reduces women's libido

  • clitoris are dangerous, capable of killing a man if his penis touches it, or a baby if the head comes into contact with it during birth,

  • Women fear the pain of re-opening the vagina, and are afraid of being discovered if it is opened illicitly


Non practicing countries

Non-practicingcountries

  • Sweden passed legislation in 1982, the first Western country to do so

  • USA 1996

  • International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation United Nations, February 6 (2003)


Fgm

  • http://nowscape.com/islam/FGM-Africa1.htm


Sources

sources

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_views_on_female_genital_mutilation

  • http://nowscape.com/islam/FGM-Africa1.htm

  • Amnesty international

  • Unicef

  • who

  • http://www.islam.se/kvinnlig-omskarelse-konsstympning

  • And more


Thank you for listening

Thank you for listening


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