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FGM PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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FGM. By: Sozan Fathi. FGM. World Health Organization  (WHO)  "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons.". History.

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Presentation Transcript


By: SozanFathi


World Health Organization (WHO) 

  • "all procedures that involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia, or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons."


  • Girls in AncientEgypt 163 B.C

  •  Evidence from MUMMIES - both Type I and Type III - pharaonic circumcision

  • might be a cultural relic from pre-monotheistic African tribal religions

  • concentrated in Islamic areas

  • the Qur'an –Islamicholybook, femalegenital cutting is not commanded

  • "Circumcision is Sunnah for men and an honorable thing for women.“ Prophet Mohammad

  • England and the United States- the 19th century to "cure" insanity, masturbation, and nymphomania

  • Isaac Baker Brown (1812–1873)

  • Sigmund Freud "Elimination of the clitoris is a prerequisite for the development of femininity."

classificationsof FGM

  • TypeI : removal of the clitorial hood

  • Type II : Clitoridectomy

  • TypeIII: Infundibulation

  • TypeIV: miscellaneousacts


  • infibulation or pharaonic circumcision, is the removal of all external genitalia

  • Left is a hole - for the passage of urine and menstrual blood, which is created by inserting a twig or rock salt into the wound

  • legs are then tied together from hip to ankle for around 40 days to allow the wound to heal

  • The immobility causes the labial tissue to bond, forming a wall of flesh and skin across the entire vulva

  • pregnant woman who has not experienced FGM, the procedure is performed before she gives birth, because it is believed the baby may be stillborn if it touches her clitoris


  • girls a few days old to puberty

  • By a traditional circumciser

  • withoutanaesthesia

  • Withoutsterile equipment

  • using a knife, razor, scissors, cut glass, sharpened rocks, fingernails

  • suturing material such as agave or acaciathorns


  • 100–140 million women and girls around the world have experienced the procedure, including 92 million in Africa

  • practisedin 28 countries in western, eastern, and north-eastern Africa

  • in parts of Asia and the Middle East,

  • and within some immigrant communities in Europe, North America, and Australasia


  • Somalia, Djibouti and Guinea 98%

  • Egypt, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Gambia, Mali, Sudan and Sierra Leone 90%

  • Chad, Guina Bissau, Liberia, Kenya, Mauritania and Togo 50-70%

Immediate complications

  • painful

  • Bleeding – fatal (10%)

  • Hypovolemic shock -fatal

  • Acute urinary retention

  • Urinary infection 

  • Wound infection

  • Septicemia

  • Tetanus

  • Hepatitis

  • HIV  

Late complications

  •  formation of scars and keloids

  • damage to urethra and bladder with infections and incontinence

  • vaginal and pelvic infections

  • Dysmenorrhes

  • Dyspareunia


  • epidermoid cysts

  • chronic pain

  • Complete obstruction

Reinfibulation and defibulation

  • Women may request reinfibulation (RI)—the restoration of the infibulation—after birth, cuts are made around the vagina, then sutures are put in place to tighten it to the size of a pinhole

  • RI may also be carried out just before marriage, after divorce, or even in elderly women to prepare them for death

  • Defibulation, or deinfibulation, is a surgical technique to reverse the closure of the vaginal opening after a Type III infibulation, and consists of a vertical cut opening up normal access to the vagina, removal of scar tissue and labial repair and a new clitoris


  • Motherhood- not called"mother" when she has children if she is uncircumcised

  • a newborn child has elements of both sexes- cleansed by the removal of "male” body parts

  • unclean to handle food and water

  • raising a girl properly

  • a woman's genitals might continue to grow without FGM, until they dangle between her legs

  • ensures pre-marital virginity and inhibits extra-marital sex, because it reduces women's libido

  • clitoris are dangerous, capable of killing a man if his penis touches it, or a baby if the head comes into contact with it during birth,

  • Women fear the pain of re-opening the vagina, and are afraid of being discovered if it is opened illicitly


  • Sweden passed legislation in 1982, the first Western country to do so

  • USA 1996

  • International Day of Zero Tolerance to Female Genital Mutilation United Nations, February 6 (2003)

  • http://nowscape.com/islam/FGM-Africa1.htm


  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Religious_views_on_female_genital_mutilation

  • http://nowscape.com/islam/FGM-Africa1.htm

  • Amnesty international

  • Unicef

  • who

  • http://www.islam.se/kvinnlig-omskarelse-konsstympning

  • And more

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