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Work Zone Best Practices. A “How To” Workshop for Making Work Zones Work Better. Sponsored by Federal Highway Administration Office of Transportation Operations Washington, D.C. May 2001. Purpose and Process. Purpose Introduce The Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook

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Work zone best practices

Work Zone Best Practices

A “How To” Workshop for Making Work Zones Work Better.

Sponsored by

Federal Highway Administration

Office of Transportation Operations

Washington, D.C.

May 2001


Purpose and process
Purpose and Process

  • Purpose

    • Introduce The Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook

    • Provide instruction in how to use the Guidebook

    • Encourage use of the Guidebook

  • Audience

    • Practitioners involved in all phases of providing our transportation network

      • Planning, operations, engineering, construction, design, traffic control

  • Training Module

    • Consists of 5 parts


Overview
Overview

  • What’s the Problem?

  • Addressing the Problem: FHWA’s Work Zone Mobility and Safety Program

  • Work Zone Best Practices Resources

  • Work Zone Best Practices Applications

  • How You Can Help!


Why do work zones need to work better
Why Do Work Zones Need To Work Better?

  • Safety of workers and drivers

    • Many serious injuries and fatalities result from crashes in work zones

  • Mobility of the traveling public

    • Travelers are frustrated with the # of work zones and the delays they cause

    • More population/drivers + Limited new roads  More congestion

  • As the nation's highway infrastructure ages, more rehabilitation is needed.

    • Aging infrastructureMore rehabilitation  More work zones

  • Work zone mobility and safety have increasing importance as work zones become more of a daily fixture on our roads.

    • More work zones + More congestion  More delays & injuries/fatalities

      Unless We MAKE WORK ZONES WORK BETTER



Work zone safety fact sheet 1
Work Zone Safety Fact Sheet 1

  • Fatality Data

    • Over the last 5 years the number of persons killed in motor vehicle crashes in work zones has averaged more than 750 fatalities per year, with a high of 868 in 1999.

    • In 1998, 772 fatalities resulted from motor vehicle crashes in work zones, 222 of which resulted from large truck crashes.

    • On average from 1994 to 1998, 16% of the fatalities resulting from crashes in work zones were non-motorists (pedestrians and bicyclists).

  • Injury Data

    • In 1998, approximately 39,000 people were injured as a result of motor vehicle crashes in work zones; 3,000 of those resulted from large truck crashes.


Work zone safety fact sheet 2
Work Zone Safety Fact Sheet 2

  • When Crashes Occur (1998 data)

    • More than half of all work zone crashes occurred during the day, while about three-quarters of fatal large truck work zone crashes were during the day.

    • Almost three times as many work zone crashes occurred on weekdays compared to weekends.

    • Fatal work zone crashes occurred most often in the summer and the fall.


Work zone safety fact sheet 3
Work Zone Safety Fact Sheet 3

  • Where Crashes Occur (1998 data)

    • Much higher % of fatal work zone crashes occur on urban interstates (14%) than % of all fatal crashes occurring on urban interstates (6%).

    • For fatal large truck crashes: percentage of work zone crashes occurring on urban interstates was twice as high compared to all fatal truck crashes (20% vs. 10%).

    • Majority of fatal work zone crashes for all vehicles (59%) and large trucks (71%) occurred on roads with speed limits of 55 miles per hour or greater.


Work zone safety fact sheet 4
Work Zone Safety Fact Sheet 4

  • Types of Crashes (1998 data)

    • Significantly higher percentage of fatal work zone crashes are rear-end collisions (31%) than in all two-vehicle fatal crashes (12%)


Road construction hazards fact sheet
Road Construction Hazards Fact Sheet

  • For Laborers’ International Union of North America (LIUNA) members, employment in road construction is hazardous -

    • 38% of members are employed in road construction activities, yet over 73% of on-the-job fatalities occurred in road and highway construction

  • Highway and street construction activities (SIC 1611) are among the most hazardous - fatality rate for highway construction workers is double the rate for other construction

  • In the U.S., 120 to 130 workers die per year in road construction activities. Over 62% of the fatalities are not directly related to traffic issues.


Work zone mobility fact sheet 1
Work Zone Mobility Fact Sheet 1

  • More Construction Projects  More Work Zones

    • Since 1981, highway spending has grown 50.2%

    • Over the duration of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21), funding levels for highway construction will increase nearly 40%

    • In 1997, 47.6% was spent on system preservation (resurfacing, restoration, rehabilitation, reconstruction).

    • As our highway system continues to age, more will be needed.


More work zones
More Work Zones

  • 160,000 miles of National Highway System and 300,000 miles of arterials reaching “middle age”

  • $1.4B infrastructure value – increased preservation work is needed


Work zone mobility fact sheet 2
Work Zone Mobility Fact Sheet 2

  • More Traffic  More Congestion

    • Congestion has been projected to increase by 50% in the next 10 years


Traffic is growing
Traffic is Growing

  • The 1999 Conditions and Performance Report (C&PR) shows increasing trends in both highway vehicle miles traveled (VMT) and Interstate daily VMT over a 10 year period.

  • We’re traveling more miles without increasing highway capacity significantly.

  • Urban VMT and DVMT per lane-mile are growing faster than on rural highways.


Congestion is growing
Congestion is Growing

  • According to the 1999 C&PR, the percentage of highway miles considered “extremely” or “severely” congested more than doubled between 1982 and 1997.

  • The percentage “uncongested” highway miles fell by almost half during the same period.


Work zone mobility fact sheet 3
Work Zone Mobility Fact Sheet 3

  • More Congestion + More Work Zones  More Delay Driver Frustration

    • In a 1995 NQI survey, only 29% of respondents were satisfied with traffic flow through work zones; delays caused by construction received the lowest overall satisfaction rating.

    • In the 2000 Omnibus Traveler Survey, the top reason cited for delays was heavy traffic, followed by road work.


Work zone mobility fact sheet 4
Work Zone Mobility Fact Sheet 4

  • More Congestion + More Work Zones  More Delay More $$

    • Work Zone Delay Costs: Daily road user delay costs on many urban freeway reconstruction projects have been calculated to be over $50,000 per day.


Overall congestion costs
Overall Congestion Costs

A recent Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) study estimates the cost of congestion (in constant 1997 dollars) to have grown from $21B in 1982 to $72B in 1997.


Work zones
Work Zones . . .

  • Take the roadway out of service

  • Impact people and businesses

  • Create frustration!


Consider running a factory
Consider Running a Factory

  • The factory is profitable only when it is producing

  • Need to minimize equipment “down” time to maximize profitability

  • What do you do to keep it producing?

    • Better equipment with fewer repairs

    • Fast maintenance procedures

    • Well-trained staff

    • Redundant equipment

    • Outsourcing options

    • Contingency plans


Consider our transportation system as a factory
Consider Our Transportation System as a Factory

  • The Transportation System is part of the equipment that keeps the factory producing.

  • It only makes money (or supports quality of life) when it’s producing.

  • We need to minimize “down” time of the system.

  • What do we do to keep our transportation system producing?

    • Better materials that last longer

    • Faster maintenance

    • Better methods

    • Alternate routes/modes to keep it running (moving people and goods)

    • Good planning


Just as the cost of downtime is real to the factory
Just as the cost of downtime is real to the factory:

The cost of transportation system “down” time due to work zones is real to our users.


Mobility safety
Mobility & Safety

  • Mobility and Safety are closely tied:

    • As congestion builds, crash rates increase.

      • As crashes increase, more congestion occurs.


Why we need work zones to work better
Why We Need Work Zones To Work Better

More delays & injuries/fatalities

UNLESS

WORK ZONES WORK BETTER

More work zones

+ More congestion


Work zone observations
Work Zone Observations*

  • Most senior State and local transportation officials are keenly aware of the delays and economic impacts caused by work zones, but their philosophy has not been formally documented in policy statements and/or performance goals; nor is this awareness ingrained in the culture of the agencies.

  • All of the State and local transportation agencies recognize that completing the work safely is of utmost importance.

  • Most States and local transportation agencies recognize the value of employing traffic management principles. However, their application has been limited to large high visibility projects.

  • Although a few transportation agencies have begun to implement corridor management techniques, corridor traffic management is still in its infancy.

*From Meeting the Customer’s Needs for Mobility and Safety During Construction and Maintenance Operations, Federal Highway Administration, 1998.


Work zone observations cont d
Work Zone Observations (cont’d)

  • Some States utilize cross-cutting teams and proactively seek input from external stakeholders in the development of the project traffic management plan.

  • Traditional bidding procedures do not reward or encourage contractors to produce higher quality work and/or expedite completion of the work.

  • Traditional traffic control practices do not encourage the contractors to minimize motorist delay and/or enhance the safety of the work zone.

  • Prediction models are available; however, current usage is generally limited to large highly visible projects.

  • There is a compelling need for a comprehensive effort to educate the general public, road users, and elected officials on the need for work zones, how to navigate safely through a work zone, and the dangers associated with them.


Work zone observations cont d1
Work Zone Observations (cont’d)

  • All transportation agencies are experiencing customers’ increasing demand for accurate real time information. Most State DOTs are meeting their customers’ needs on high impact projects; however, a few agencies have expanded their program to include all projects.

  • There is universal agreement that the most effective way of controlling speed in the work zone is to have a staffed police car with flashing lights at the beginning of the work zone.

  • ITS technology has not been adapted/applied into work zone traffic management.

  • There is a compelling need for accurate work zone crash data and the evaluation of traffic handling techniques in order to make sound decisions.


Overview1
Overview

  • What’s the Problem?

  • Addressing the Problem: FHWA’s Work Zone Mobility and Safety Program

  • Work Zone Best Practices Resources

  • Work Zone Best Practices Applications

  • How You Can Help!


The opportunity to make work zones work better
The Opportunity to MakeWork Zones Work Better

  • We have:

    • Improved construction materials and processes

    • New opportunities provided by technology

    • Public frustration that creates political will and increased acceptance of innovative processes

    • Greater means of sharing information about new materials and processes and technologies:

      • Internet/Web sites

      • Conferences/workshops

      • Peer-to-peer dialogue

  • FHWA’s Work Zone Mobility and Safety Program

    • The Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook


A national agenda to address the impacts of work zones
A National Agenda to Address the Impacts of Work Zones

  • Maximize availability of transportation network

  • Minimize user impacts


National work zone mobility and safety vision and goal
National Work Zone Mobility and Safety Vision and Goal

  • National Work Zone Vision:

    • Maximize availability of the transportation network through traveler-focused system management that maximizes safety and minimizes delays due to work zones.

    • Plan and conduct maintenance and improvements to the network in ways that minimize impacts to traffic flow and risks to road users and workers using a full life-cycle perspective.

  • National Work Zone Goal:

    • Minimize impacts on user mobility and safety and worker safety due to work zones


A national framework making work zones work better
A National Framework:“Making Work Zones Work Better”

Transportation Planning

Continuously Track and Analyze Work Zone Performance

Managing Traffic During Work Zones

Project Design for Construction and Maintenance

Traffic Control Planning


National framework fhwa program

Continuously Track and Analyze Work Zone Performance

  • User costs

  • Exposure

  • Safety

  • Delay

  • Public perception

National Framework  FHWA Program

  • FHWA Program Objectives

  • Develop national performance measures

  • Track performance measures over time

  • Increase use of performance measures


National framework fhwa program1

Transportation Planning

  • User impacts in TIPs

  • User impacts in CLRPs

  • Traffic mgmt in corridor planning

National Framework  FHWA Program

  • FHWA Program Objectives

  • Make work zone considerations a routine part of transportation planning

  • Institutionalize consideration of user impacts over the life cycle

  • Promote corridor/network management perspective


National framework fhwa program2

Project Design for Construction and Maintenance

  • Consider user impacts

    • Life cycle analysis

    • Minimum duration

    • Minimum work zones

  • Worker safety

National Framework  FHWA Program

  • FHWA Program Objectives

  • Reduce construction duration (e.g., use of time-conscious construction methods)

  • Increase use of innovative contracting techniques

  • Ensure safe working environment

  • Increase life cycle (more durable, higher quality projects)


National framework fhwa program3

Traffic Control Planning

  • Consider user impacts

    • Work scheduling

    • Capacity optimization

    • Effective TCPs

    • Public information/outreach

  • Worker safety

National Framework  FHWA Program

  • FHWA Program Objectives

  • Improve traffic control plans

  • Assess safety impacts of TCPs on workers


National framework fhwa program4

Managing Traffic During Work Zones

  • Consider user impact

    • Effective traffic control

    • Real-time WZ management

    • Public information and involvement

    • Incident management

  • Worker safety

National Framework  FHWA Program

  • FHWA Program Objectives

  • Maximize worker and road user safety during WZ

  • Facilitate use of real-time WZ management to minimize delay

  • Better inform and involve the public

  • Encourage prompt, effective incident response


The three d s
The Three D’s

Durability, Duration, Density

  • Facility Durability - Reduce the #of work zones: Reduce the need for work zones through the use of improved materials and methods that increase the life cycle.

  • Project Duration - Reduce the time a work zone is in place: Reduce construction time in the roadway through better methods, policies, technologies, and operations.

  • Traffic Density - Improve traffic flow in and around those work zones that must occur: Decrease traveler delay and safety impacts due to work zones through better TDM, traveler information, traffic control, incident response, and work zone geometry.


Making work zones work better and best practices
Making Work Zones Work Betterand Best Practices

  • Work zone operations managers and operators realize distinct benefits from being aware of the current best practices available nationally.

  • “Solutions” come from partners working together successfully to solve problems within the resources, authority, and relationships available to them.

  • We can learn from the successes of federal, state, and local agencies and private sector partners working to “improve mobility and safety on both sides of the barrel.”



Overview2
Overview

  • What’s the Problem?

  • Addressing the Problem: FHWA’s Work Zone Mobility and Safety Program

  • Work Zone Best Practices Resources

  • Work Zone Best Practices Applications

  • How You Can Help!



Work zone best practices guidebook
Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook

  • Overview of the Guidebook

  • How the Guidebook is Organized

  • Guidebook Maintenance/Updates

  • State-of-the-Art Work Zone Mobility and Safety Practices


Work zone best practices guidebook1
Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook

  • Based on 1998 scanning tour of 26 states where work zone best practices were identified

  • Collaboration between FHWA and AASHTO Work Zone Best Practices Task Force

  • Includes cross-references and topical index

  • Describes state-of-the-art practice as well as 262 specific best practices

  • Contains points of contact

  • Will be updated as the state-of-the-practice evolves


Work zone best practices guidebook2
Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook

  • Overview of the Guidebook

  • How the Guidebook is Organized

  • Guidebook Maintenance/Updates

  • State-of-the-Art Work Zone Mobility and Safety Approaches


Guidebook organization
Guidebook Organization

  • Best Practices are presented in 11 Best Practice Areas

  • To facilitate finding applicable practices, the Best Practices are also sorted into:

    • 7 Cross-Reference lists

    • A Topical Index of 41 topics and subtopics



Best practices information
Best Practices Information

  • Each Best Practice Area begins with the “State-of-the-Art”

    • Description of the “state-of-the-art”

    • List of enabling objectives: what transportation agencies/practitioners would need to do to achieve the “state-of-the-art”

  • Next is a list of the specific best practices for that best practice area

    • List organizes the practices into more specific subcategories


Best practices information cont
Best Practices Information (cont.)

  • For each Best Practice, the Guidebook provides:

    • Reference number used in the cross-reference section

    • Location where the practice/policy/technology was used

    • Title of the Best Practice

    • Description

    • Reason(s) for adopting the practice/policy/technology

    • Biggest benefit(s) realized from the Best Practice

    • Location and type(s) of projects where the Best Practice is most applicable/effective

    • Contact(s)


Work zone best practices guidebook3
Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook

  • Overview of the Guidebook

  • How the Guidebook is Organized

  • Guidebook Maintenance/Updates

  • State-of-the-Art Work Zone Mobility and Safety Approaches


Fhwa aashto partnership for maintaining the work zone best practices guidebook

AASHTO

Access to Practitioners and Vendors

Hands-on Experience and Activities

Subject Matter Expertise

Distribution Channels

FHWA

National Coordination

Program Planning and Management

Headquarters and Field resources

Publication and Production Support

FHWA/AASHTO Partnership for Maintaining the Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook


Role of the aashto work zone technical team in maintaining the guidebook
Role of the AASHTO Work Zone Technical Team in Maintaining the Guidebook

  • Review Current Content - Updates

    • Review Guidebook content for accuracy, quality, completeness, and usefulness and recommend modifications, deletions, corrections.

    • Review Guidebook media, format, and organization and recommend improvements that will improve access and utility.

  • Recommend Future Content - Updates

    • Identify and contribute new best practices to be added to the Guidebook.

    • Assist in soliciting new best practices from practitioners, developers, vendors, and system users.

    • Review best practices submissions and select those which are to be included in future editions of the Guidebook.

  • Outreach

    • Help publicize the Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook through professional organizations, presentations at technical meetings, professional and trade publications and other venues and outlets.

    • Participate in Work Zone Best Practices Workshops as speakers, panelists, and participants.


Best practices guidebook update process

Paper/email/Web submissions the Guidebook

Workshops

Reports/Publications

Vendors

Best Practices Ideas

AASHTO Technical Team Periodic Review

Recommended Best Practices

Eliminate outdated practices

Best Practices Guidebook Update Process


Work zone best practices guidebook4
Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook the Guidebook

  • Overview of the Guidebook

  • How the Guidebook is Organized

  • Guidebook Maintenance/Updates

  • State-of-the-Art Work Zone Mobility and Safety Approaches


State of the art work zone practices
State-of-the-Art Work Zone Practices* the Guidebook

  • Policy and Procedure

    • Decisions are based upon a customer driven comprehensive work zone traffic management policy that focuses on reducing the exposure of the road user and worker.

    • Policy addresses high-quality design, construction, and maintenance operations, minimizing disruption to the highway user and maintaining a safe, efficient roadway environment for the traveling public and the highway worker.

    • The organizational structure fully supports cross-cutting teams in all phases of work zone traffic management where capacity reductions adversely impact traffic flow.

  • Public Relations, Education, and Outreach (General Public, Driver, and Elected Officials)

    • The driving community and elected officials are informed, involved, and sensitive to the highway worker and work site safety needs.

*From Meeting the Customer’s Needs for Mobility and Safety During Construction and Maintenance Operations, Federal Highway Administration, 1998.


State of the art work zone practices cont
State-of-the-Art Work Zone Practices the Guidebook (cont.)

  • Prediction Modeling and Impact Analysis: Congestion and Crashes

    • Available predication/analysis tools are user-friendly and readily adapted to the local construction site and situation.

    • These tools can accurately analyze and reliably predict congestion situations including travel times, queue length, travel speed, total delay, crash rates, severity levels, and interactive feedback to both the design and construction team.

  • Planning and Programming

    • A corridor approach is used in evaluating, planning, and programming.

    • This process gives full consideration to long-range corridor needs, traffic demands, road-user costs, potential business community impacts, use of extended designs and high-performance material, and overall evaluation of total costs for the life of the improvement.


State of the art work zone practices cont1
State-of-the-Art Work Zone Practices (cont.) the Guidebook

  • Project Development/Design

    • Motorist delay, road user and worker safety, and impacts to adjacent communities are assessed on all major urban and other high volume corridors.

    • Cross-cutting teams and multi-agency/interests are used in developing alternatives and selecting the preferred design that minimizes present and future exposure to road users and workers.

    • The project development process results in a TCP that provides for shared risk and benefits for owners, contractors, and traveling public.

    • Contract times and motorist delays are minimized through the use of CPM scheduling and accelerated contracting procedures.

  • Contracting and Bidding Procedures

    • Contracting and bidding procedures reward contractors for quality work, innovation, accelerated early completions, minimizing motorists delays, and enhancing the safety of road-users and workers.

    • On high-risk, high-visibility, and complex projects contractors are pre-qualified on the basis of quality and past performance.


State of the art work zone practices cont2
State-of-the-Art Work Zone Practices (cont.) the Guidebook

  • Specifications and Construction Materials, Methods, and Practices

    • The same level of service is provided through the work zone.

    • Workers are physically separated and are protected from the traffic.

    • Work areas are sufficiently illuminated at night without blinding the motorist and gawk screens are used to prevent the motorists from being distracted during daytime operations.

    • Contractors have a vested interest in quality, timeliness, and road-user safety.

    • Facilities perform at an acceptable level of service for 35-50 years with the minimum planned systems preservation.

    • Acceptance is based on performance.

  • Traveler and Traffic Information (Project Related)

    • Accurate real-time work zone (construction/maintenance/utility operations) information is provided to the road users in sufficient time to make informed travel decisions.


State of the art work zone practices cont3
State-of-the-Art Work Zone Practices (cont.) the Guidebook

  • Enforcement

    • Work zone trained and qualified, full-time uniformed police officers are readily available for construction and maintenance operations.

    • State-of-the-art technology is used to maximize effectiveness of these police officers.

  • ITS and Innovative Technology

    • The ITS systems are used to automatically collect and analyze before, during, and after traffic flows in the work zones; provide accurate real-time information automatically to motorists and to the construction team; enforce speed; as well as safely guide motorists through the work zone.


State of the art work zone practices cont4
State-of-the-Art Work Zone Practices (cont.) the Guidebook

  • Evaluation and Feedback

    • Uniform work zone crash data is collected electronically in all States and the raw data is simultaneously transmitted to the State DOT.

    • Work zone crash data is automatically analyzed and trends and reports are periodically furnished to appropriate DOT offices (including, but not limited to, design and construction project personnel).

    • Performance measures for work zone congestion/delay are used to evaluate how well agencies are meeting performance goals for mobility and safety in work zones.

    • Motorists provide perspectives on how well their demands for mobility and safety in work zone are being met.


Overview3
Overview the Guidebook

  • What’s the Problem?

  • Addressing the Problem: FHWA’s Work Zone Mobility and Safety Program

  • Work Zone Best Practices Resources

  • Work Zone Best Practices Applications

  • How You Can Help!


Work zone best practices application
Work Zone Best Practices Application the Guidebook

  • How to Use the Guidebook to Find Best Practices - An Application Framework

  • Practice Applications of Work Zone Best Practices


Work zone best practices checklist

Facility Life Cycle the Guidebook

Policy

Planning

Design

Construction

Work Zone Impact Area

Traffic

Density

Project

Duration

Facility

Durability

Work Zone Best Practices Checklist


Density how can we reduce the delay caused by the work zone
Density: How can we reduce the delay caused by the work zone?

Facility Life Cycle

Policy

Planning

Design

Construction

Work Zone Impact Area

  • Maximum delay policies

  • Enforce-ment

  • Safety

  • Incentives (traffic delays)

  • TMPs

  • Expectations/goals

  • Metrics

  • Corridor management

  • Modeling and analysis/ Metrics

  • TCPs

  • Enforce-ment

  • ATIS

  • PTMS

  • Operations (traffic mgmt)

  • Work Scheduling

  • TDM

  • Queues

  • Delays

  • Enforcement

  • Implementation

Traffic

Density

Duration

Durability


Duration how can we minimize the time it takes to build a project

Facility Life Cycle zone?

Policy

Planning

Design

Construction

Work Zone Impact Area

Density

Project

Duration

  • Agency policies

  • Procure-ment methods

  • Incentives (project times)

  • Corridor planning

  • Methods

  • PR/aware-ness

  • Project plans

  • Resource availability

  • Scheduling

  • Contracts (competition,A+B bidding)

  • Incentives

  • Execution

  • Quality

  • Management

Durability

Duration: How can we minimize the time it takes to build a project?


Durability can we reduce the need for a work zone

Facility Life Cycle zone?

Policy

Planning

Design

Construction

Work Zone Impact Area

Density

Duration

Facility

Durability

  • Public policy

  • Cost benefit

  • Technical awareness

  • Budgets/ funding

  • Funds

  • Cost/benefit

  • Project scheduling/ planning

  • Public outreach/ awareness

  • Incentives (construction quality)

  • Life cycle analysis

  • Quality (materials)

  • Methods (construction)

  • Measurement

  • Testing (performance)

  • Materials

  • Methods

  • Techno-logies

Durability: Can we reduce the need for a work zone?


Work zone best practices application1
Work Zone Best Practices Application zone?

  • How to Use the Guidebook to Find Best Practices - An Application Framework

  • Practice Applications of Work Zone Best Practices


Sample problem 1 bridge rehabilitation
Sample Problem 1: Bridge Rehabilitation zone?

  • Project Description

    • A bridge with two separate structures (one for eastbound traffic and one for westbound traffic) carries about 43,000 vehicles a day on average, over a river to and from the downtown of a mid-size city. Each structure has 3 lanes.

    • Work involved the eastbound structure and would consist of removing and replacing the bridge deck, removing and replacing the structural steel flooring system, and blasting and painting the entire structure.

    • Past work on or near the bridge has resulted in 30-minute traffic delays.

  • Develop a plan for construction and traffic management.

    • Eastbound structure needs to be closed for most of the project.

  • What best practices can be used to enhance mobility and safety in the work zone?

  • How can the Best Practices Guidebook be used to help?


Response for sample problem 1
Response for Sample Problem 1 zone?

  • Use the Cross-Reference Lists in the Guidebook

    • Nature of Work Bridge Repair, Bridge Maintenance

      • BP #30 - Use of commuter incentives to minimize congestion in work zones

      • BP #116 - Contractor hired by design consultant to do constructability review on bridge (A+B bidding)

      • BP #135 - Contract award of Interstate bridge repair project based on performance and cost

    • Project Life Cycle Stage  most categories, including Traffic Control, Traffic Control/Management Plans

      • BP #5 - Traffic management plan on major urban project

      • BP #95 - Traffic Management Workgroups

    • Roadway Characteristics  Multi-lane, Divided Facilities

      • BP #75 - Promotion of A+B bidding; lane rentals, incentives/disincentives, PR campaign

      • BP #90 - High Impact Project Task Forces


Response for sample problem 1 cont
Response for Sample Problem 1 zone?(cont.)

  • Use the Search Feature of the Guidebook CD to find some potential best practices

    • Search on “bridge”

      • BP #61 - Multi-jurisdiction TCP and public outreach for bridge closure project

      • BP # 94 - Use of a Steering Committee

      • BP # 121 - Summertime Bridge Reconstruction Program

    • Search on “lane closure”


Response for sample problem 1 cont1
Response for Sample Problem 1 zone?(cont.)

  • Use the Topical Index

    • Community Involvement

    • Education/Outreach

    • Innovative Contracting

    • Public Relations

    • Traffic Management Technologies

    • Traffic Management/Control

    • Traveler Information

      • Real-Time Traveler Information: BP # 221 - ADAPTIR

    • Work Zone Lane Management

    • Worker Safety


Response for sample problem 1 cont2
Response for Sample Problem 1 zone?(cont.)

  • Using a combination of:

    • A movable barrier - The westbound structure carried two-way traffic using a reversible middle lane. A movable concrete barrier was moved twice daily to make 2 lanes of travel for peak hour traffic flow direction

    • Traffic management system with real-time information

    • A+B bidding

    • Being proactive in working with local officials and the media

    • An innovative overhead crane system to facilitate placement of the new bridge deck and movement of materials

  • Traffic delays and frustration were reduced

    • “The media was waiting for traffic to back up and it didn’t.”

    • “No one could believe how smoothly traffic flowed because of the past history of backups on the bridge.”


Sample problem 2 interstate highway reconstruction
Sample Problem 2: Interstate Highway Reconstruction zone?

  • Project Description

    • Resurfacing and reconstruction of underlying roadbed, safety upgrades, major bridge rehabilitation, and drainage improvements are needed.

    • Roadbed is almost 30 years old and needs serious safety improvements and repairs. 70% of the joints in the sections that will be replaced have failed or need repair, on-ramps and bridges need structural or safety improvements.

    • Project will include northbound and southbound lanes; each direction has 2 lanes.

  • Develop a plan for construction and traffic management: What best practices can be used to enhance mobility and safety in the work zone?

  • How can the Best Practices Guidebook be used to help?


Response for sample problem 2
Response for Sample Problem 2 zone?

  • A combination of:

    • Extensive planning

    • Widespread community involvement

    • Project phasing

    • Total road closure strategy

    • Year-long information campaign to alert the public to alternate ways to travel (mode and route)

    • Alternate routes (make improvements on them, encourage use)

    • Increased use of public transit (new routes, publicity)

  • Were used to obtain:

    • The shortest reasonable construction period

    • At the least expense

    • With a minimum of construction disruptions

  • All work was completed on-time or faster than planned


Overview4
Overview zone?

  • What’s the Problem?

  • Addressing the Problem: FHWA’s Work Zone Mobility and Safety Program

  • Work Zone Best Practices Resources

  • Work Zone Best Practices Applications

  • How You Can Help!


How you can help
How You Can Help! zone?

  • Register to receive notice of Guidebook updates.

  • Use the best practices to plan, implement, and operate highway work zones.

  • Seek advice from individuals with experience and expertise.

  • Submit good ideas and best practices for work zone mobility and safety.

  • Provide feedback on what’s working and what’s not working.

  • Let FHWA know where you think additional research and development work is needed.


Useful work zone web sites
Useful Work Zone Web Sites zone?

  • FHWA Office of Operations Work Zone Mobility and Safety Web Site

    • http://www.ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/workzone.htm

  • FHWA Office of Safety Web Site Work Zone Information:

    • http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/programs/wsz.htm

  • FHWA National Work Zone Awareness Week Web Site:

    • http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/fourthlevel/nwzaw01.htm

  • National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse:

    • http://wzsafety.tamu.edu


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