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The Book of Daniel
History of Israel I. 586 BC Jerusalem falls to Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar (605-562)539 Last king of Babylon Nabonidus (556-539) loses to Cyrus the Persian323 Alexander the Great Dies323-ca 200 Palestine ruled by Ptolemies from Egypt. History of Israel II. 200 BC -- 63 BC--Palestine ruled by S
The Book of Daniel
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The Book of Daniel Chaps 1-6 stories; chaps 7-12 visions Chaps 1, 8-12 Hebrew; chaps 2-7 Aramaic Three parts of Old Testament canon: Law 400, Prophets 200, Writings end of 1st c. Daniel is in the Writings in the Hebrew Bible; in Prophets in English Bibles. Story world = Babylonian exile in 6th c. History of Israel I 586 BC Jerusalem falls to Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar (605-562) 539 Last king of Babylon Nabonidus (556-539) loses to Cyrus the Persian 323 Alexander the Great Dies 323-ca 200 Palestine ruled by Ptolemies from Egypt History of Israel II 200 BC -- 63 BC--Palestine ruled by Seleucids from Syria 167 Antiochus IV ordered swine sacrificed on altar in Jerusalem; forbade observance of sabbath and circumcision Revolt against Antiochus led by Maccabees--Judas, Jonathan, Simon--with rededication (Hannukah) of temple in 164 Information about 6th century inDaniel Belshazzar the son of Nebuchadnezzar; actually they were not related. Belshazzar son of Nabonidus Belshazzar the last king of Babylon; last Babylonian king was a man named Nabonidus Babylonia fell to Darius the Mede; actually fell to Cyrus the Persian. Darius followed Cyrus Nebuchadnezzar very sick in chap 4; no ancient record of this. Nabonidus was universally disliked in antiquity; thought to be crazy Information about Second Century in Daniel Alexander hardly on throne when kingdom divided Dan 11:3-4 Dan 11:31 description of persecution by Antiochus IV Dan 11:40 predicts that Antiochus IV would die in Palestine; he actually died in Mesopotamia Temple not yet restored = pre 164 BCE Options in time of Persecution Go along to get along Join a guerrilla outfit--”little help” in 11:34 = Maccabees. 1 Maccabees; cf. 2 Maccabees Trust in God to deliver you from the enemy. Daniel 1 The Jews Daniel, Hananiah (Shadrach), Mishael (Meshach), Azariah (Abednego) were taught literature and language of Babylon They refused royal food; ate only vegetables and water. They were fatter and better Ten times smarter than local bureaucrats Daniel 2 Daniel interprets dream of Nebuchadnezzar Gigantic statue Head of gold = Nebuchadnezzar arms of chest of silver = Medes belly and thighs of bronze = Persians legs of iron Alexander feet = iron and clay = Ptolemies and Seleucids crushed by stone not made with human hands Daniel exalted Daniel 3--Daniel not a player Nebuchadnezzar commanded everyone to worship gigantic statue. Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego refuse Thrown into fiery furnace King sees four men in furnace; men freed without any damage God of Shadrach, Meshach and Abednego praised; Nebuchadnezzar converts Daniel 4 Tree falls = Nebuchadnezzar King driven away to live with wild animals; ate grass like animals, hair grew long as eagles’ feathers, nails became like birds’ claws Nebuchadnezzar restored to throne Nabonidus stayed a long time in desert; prayer of Nabonidus in Dead Sea Scrolls Daniel 5 Belshazzar king; only regent while Nabonidus in desert Handwriting on wall Daniel interprets Mene God has numbered your days; tekel weighed and found wanting; peres = your kingdom given to Medes and Persians; Belshazzar killed; Darius reigns Daniel 6 Everyone must pray to king; Daniel refuses Daniel thrown into den of lions, much to regret of king Darius king has insomnia; rushes to lions’ den God sent an angel to shut lions’ mouths Daniel’s accusers thrown into lions’ den-eaten before they hit the bottom