Method of difference
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Method of Difference. Compares situations where the event occurs in one case, but not the other S1: P, Q, R, S → Event S2: P, Q, R → Event doesn’t occur What test might result in this outcome?. Getting Rats in the Mood ♀ Rats:C, Cedar bedding, ♂ 1  Event (in the mood)

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Method of Difference

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Method of difference

Method of Difference

Compares situations where the event occurs in one case, but not the other

  • S1: P, Q, R, S → Event

  • S2: P, Q, R → Event doesn’t occur

    What test might result in this outcome?


Method of difference

Getting Rats in the Mood

♀ Rats:C, Cedar bedding, ♂1 Event (in the mood)

♀ Rats:No C, Cedar bedding, ♂1 No Event (not in the mood)

Method of Difference


Method of agreement

Method of Agreement

Compare factors of two cases where the same event occurs to see if there is a common factor between them

  • S1: P, Q, R, S→ Event

  • S2: T, U, V, S→ Event

    What test might result in this outcome?


Getting rats in the mood

Getting Rats in the Mood

  • ♀ Rats:Caffeine, Romantic Flick, Sexy ♂ Rats Event

  • ♀ Rats: Caffeine, Disco, Homely ♂ Rats Event

    Method of Agreement


Joint method of agreement difference

Joint Method of Agreement & Difference

Used to compare cases where an event occurs in some cases, but not others

  • S1: P, Q, S→ Event

  • S2: P, T, U→ Event

  • S3: R, V, S→ Event Doesn’t Occur

    What test might result in this outcome?


Getting rats in the mood1

Getting Rats in the Mood

  • ♀ Rats:Caffeine, Romantic Flick, Sexy ♂ Rats Event

  • ♀ Rats: Caffeine, Disco, Homely ♂ Rats Event

  • ♀ Rats:Popcorn, Romantic Flick, Stupid ♂ Rats No Event

  • Joint Method of Agreement & Difference


Method of concomitant variation

Method of Concomitant Variation

Varying a factor to see whether a change happens with that variation at the same time when a factor is altered

  • S1:  When X is increased, then Event occurrence rate increases

  • S2:  When X is decreased, then Event occurrence rate decreases

    What test might result in this outcome?


Getting rats in the mood2

Getting Rats in the Mood

Increase in the amount of caffeine given to ♀ rats increases the likelihood that they’ll find the ♂ rats appealing

Decrease in the amount of caffeine given to ♀ rats decreases the likelihood that they’ll find the ♂ rats appealing

Concomitant Variation


Method of difference

Getting Women in the Mood

(instead of rats)


Getting women in the mood

Getting Women in the Mood

  • ♀ Humans:C, Silk Sheets, ♂1 Event

  • ♀ Humans:No C, Silk Sheets, ♂1 No Event

    Method of Difference


Getting women in the mood1

Getting Women in the Mood

But---What difference do you have to account for with women and not rats?


Getting women in the mood2

Getting Women in the Mood

So, what method could you use to determine whether habitual caffeine users are susceptible after a bigger than usual jolt of caffeine?


Getting women in the mood3

Getting Women in the Mood

  • ♀ Non-users  C, ♂1 Event

  • ♀ Users  C, ♂2 Event

    Method of Agreement


Getting women in the mood4

Getting Women in the Mood

Increase in the amount of caffeine given to ♀ increases the likelihood that they’ll find the ♂ appealing

Decrease in the amount of caffeine given to ♀ decreases the likelihood that they’ll find the ♂ appealing

Concomitant Variation


Getting women in the mood5

Getting Women in the Mood

What method would you use to better isolate the extent to which caffeine is a significant variable that affects the female libido?


Getting women in the mood6

Getting Women in the Mood

  • ♀ 1: Caffeine, Romantic Flick, Sexy ♂ Event

  • ♀ 2: Caffeine, Romantic Dinner, Homely ♂  Event

  • ♀ 3: Vanilla Milkshakes, Drive-In Movie, Nerdy♂ No Event

    Joint Method of Agreement & Difference


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