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Method of Difference

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Compares situations where the event occurs in one case, but not the other

- S1: P, Q, R, S → Event
- S2: P, Q, R → Event doesn’t occur
What test might result in this outcome?

Getting Rats in the Mood

♀ Rats:C, Cedar bedding, ♂1 Event (in the mood)

♀ Rats:No C, Cedar bedding, ♂1 No Event (not in the mood)

Method of Difference

Compare factors of two cases where the same event occurs to see if there is a common factor between them

- S1: P, Q, R, S→ Event
- S2: T, U, V, S→ Event
What test might result in this outcome?

- ♀ Rats:Caffeine, Romantic Flick, Sexy ♂ Rats Event
- ♀ Rats: Caffeine, Disco, Homely ♂ Rats Event
Method of Agreement

Used to compare cases where an event occurs in some cases, but not others

- S1: P, Q, S→ Event
- S2: P, T, U→ Event
- S3: R, V, S→ Event Doesn’t Occur
What test might result in this outcome?

- ♀ Rats:Caffeine, Romantic Flick, Sexy ♂ Rats Event
- ♀ Rats: Caffeine, Disco, Homely ♂ Rats Event
- ♀ Rats:Popcorn, Romantic Flick, Stupid ♂ Rats No Event
- Joint Method of Agreement & Difference

Varying a factor to see whether a change happens with that variation at the same time when a factor is altered

- S1: When X is increased, then Event occurrence rate increases
- S2: When X is decreased, then Event occurrence rate decreases
What test might result in this outcome?

Increase in the amount of caffeine given to ♀ rats increases the likelihood that they’ll find the ♂ rats appealing

Decrease in the amount of caffeine given to ♀ rats decreases the likelihood that they’ll find the ♂ rats appealing

Concomitant Variation

Getting Women in the Mood

(instead of rats)

- ♀ Humans:C, Silk Sheets, ♂1 Event
- ♀ Humans:No C, Silk Sheets, ♂1 No Event
Method of Difference

But---What difference do you have to account for with women and not rats?

So, what method could you use to determine whether habitual caffeine users are susceptible after a bigger than usual jolt of caffeine?

- ♀ Non-users C, ♂1 Event
- ♀ Users C, ♂2 Event
Method of Agreement

Increase in the amount of caffeine given to ♀ increases the likelihood that they’ll find the ♂ appealing

Decrease in the amount of caffeine given to ♀ decreases the likelihood that they’ll find the ♂ appealing

Concomitant Variation

What method would you use to better isolate the extent to which caffeine is a significant variable that affects the female libido?

- ♀ 1: Caffeine, Romantic Flick, Sexy ♂ Event
- ♀ 2: Caffeine, Romantic Dinner, Homely ♂ Event
- ♀ 3: Vanilla Milkshakes, Drive-In Movie, Nerdy♂ No Event
Joint Method of Agreement & Difference