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Essay of the history of elevators ----------------------------- --- 1 Pictures of inventions at different points in time----------- 2 A letter to the patent office for the original idea------------ 3 Charts based on real data of elevators------------------------ 4

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Essay of the history of elevators 1

Essay of the history of elevators ----------------------------- --- 1

Pictures of inventions at different points in time----------- 2

A letter to the patent office for the original idea------------ 3

Charts based on real data of elevators------------------------ 4

Fantasy of the future technology replacing the elevators- 5

Advertisement of current elevators---------------------------- 6

Bibliography------------------------------------------------------ ----- 7


History of elevators

History of Elevators

How are you able to easily travel to your home in an apartment, whether it

was the 30th floor or the 50th floor, with only stairs? You would be exhausted to death by the

time you reached your floor. Elevators are the best choice for any traveling among buildings

and skyscrapers. Elevators are convenient labor-saving machines essentially used in daily life,

especially during the present day when technology has quickly advanced and people require

traveling up and down skyscrapers and buildings. The elevator business and companies

flourished in the 1850s and 60s as a successful product and fundamental transportation

equipment. Elevators have been constantly evolving for almost 150 years. As important as it

used to be in the past, it continues to be of great use in the present.

Every device began with an ancient form. The most primitive and early form of

elevators was the basket elevator. The basket elevators were simply carrying passengers by lifting the ropes that held onto a basket along cliffs or high walls. These were often used for

uninvited guests attempting to enter medieval monasteries that were surrounded by protective huge barriers.

In 17th century, the innovation of basket elevator appeared in the form of “flying

chair” in France. The flying chair was activated by the rope system which coiled around the

wheel at the top. The rope was connected to the chair (platform) on one end while on the

other end a counterweight was attached. By tossing off a sandbag out from the chair, the chair with less weight would ascend along with the passengers while the counterweight fell. The

ride could be pretty bumpy and uncomfortable though, and require more effort to exit the

chair when the journey ended.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Pictures of elevator inventions

at different points of time

1850s

19th century

Medieval times

Otis safe steam

powered rope elevator

Early basket elevators

Hydraulic elevators


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Pictures of elevator inventions

at different points of time

21st century

1889

Otis First Electric

Elevator

Modern Elevators


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Pictures of elevator inventions

at different points of time

Below is a clear diagram of the safety break I have invented to be attached onto the

steam-powered rope elevators. The red part is the disconnected cable. The blue parts

are the ratchets that will be hooked onto the guide rails when the cable breaks. The

yellow part is where the elevator will stop when the safety break comes into effect.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Deaths related to work on or near

elevators, by cause, 1992-2003.

  • http://www.cdc.gov/eLCOSH/docs/d0300/d000397/d000397.html#3


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Deaths among elevator or escalator

passengers while not at work, by cause,

1997-2003

Made by excel


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Advertisement of Modern Elevators


Essay of the history of elevators 1

  • International Union of Elevator Constructors Local#23. (2005). History of Elevators. Retrieved 18

  • March, 2008, from < www.iueclocal23.org/history_of_elevators.htm>

  • Non. (Unknown). Elevator Info Elevator History. Retrieved 18 March, from

  • <www.columbia-elevator.com/info/history.html>

  • David Wallechinsky & Irving Wallace. (1975-1981). History of Elevators. Retrieved 1 Apirl, from

  • <http://www.trivia-library.com/b/history-of-elevators-part-1.htm>

  • Anonymous. (3 September 2007) History of Elevators. Retrieved 3 April, from

  • <http://www.bigsiteofamazingfacts.com/history-of-elevators>

  • ELEVATOR WORLD INC. (unknown). The Museum for the Preservation of Elevating History.

  • Retrieved 25 March, 2008, from <http://www.theelevatormuseum.org/ >

  • Lawrence Kestenbaum. (February 14, 1997). Elevator Page. Retrieved 26 March, 2008, from

  • <http://potifos.com/elevators/ >

  • Otis Elevator Company. (unknown) About Elevators. Retrieved 26 March, 2008, from

  • <http://www.otis.com/cp/subcategorydetails/0,2241,CLI1_RES1_SCM14900_SCP14908,00.html>

  • Ray Griffen. (1996). Ray Griffen’s ElevatorMax- Elevator History and FAQ’s. Retrieved 26 March,

  • 2008, from <http://www.geocities.com/WallStreet/1484/floor5.htm>

  • IMAGES

  • http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1605.htm

  • http://www.otis.com/otis150/images/display/1,2343,1882,00.gif

  • starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Elevator_basket

  • http://www.earlyofficemuseum.com/office_buildings.htm

  • www.sjphoto.com

  • http://www.zdistrict.com/wp-content/uploads/2006/07/elevator.jpg

  • http://www.stairexercisesforfitness.com/images/RSC%20Anaerobics%20&%20Strength%20019.jpg

  • http://pro.corbis.com/images/42-17420257.jpg?size=572&uid=%7B78E21EC3-2BD5-4E5C-BCFD-6FB6EF914F95%7D


Essay of the history of elevators 1

The Phenakistiscope was introduced in 1832 by Joseph Antoine Ferdinand Plateau.

This toy is a disc with the center fixed so that it would be allowed to spin freely. On the edges of the disc, various images with sequential movements were drawn. When playing, this toy should be held by the user between the user and a mirror, so the user could see the motion pictures through the reflection of the mirror.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

a strip of various images with sequential movements is pasted. When this device rotates, the image appears to move. Zoetrope is regard as one of the most important early moving picture devices today because of it had the advantage of being able to change the picture by replacing a different strip of paper.

One of the most important early moving picture devices was the Zoetrope that was invented by William George Hoer in 1834 .

This construction is a cylinder that rotates. Similar to the Phenakistiscope, in the interior of the Zoetrope,


Essay of the history of elevators 1

This device is like a flipbook, it is an entertainment for kids. When the pages are being flipped, the sequential movement of the pictures will create an illusion of motion. In 1889, Thomas Edison created one kinetograph too, but he put the images on strips of photographic paper. Then in 1893, he invented kinetoscope. However, this invention was not so great because it only allows a single person to view the moving image at a time.

a.k.a.: “Flipbook”

The next device that advanced the technology of animation toys was the kineograph, invented in 1868.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

There were two men that were brothers, and one named Auguste and another named Louis. They were called the Lumiére brothers. The two brothers invented the Cinematograph (a camera that could take pictures, process images into films, and project movies.), Vitascope (A device similar to kinetoscope but Vitascope’s images could be projected onto a larger screen than the kinetoscope could.), and has cultivated and expanded the limitations of Thomas Edison’s kinetograph.

Cinematograph, introduced In 1895 by the Lumiére brothers, Auguste and Louis.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Vitascope, a device similar to the Kinetoscope but allows the image to be projected onto a larger screen, was introduced in 1896 by the Lumiére’sbrothers


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Current Inventions

Palm Size Movie Projector

Movie projector in a Phone


Patent for gatling gun

Patent for Gatling Gun

To the commissioner of Patents

Born September 12, 1818 in Hertford Count, North Carolina, I, inventor Richard Gatling have invented the Gatling gun. The Gatling gun has the ability to fire sustained multiple bursts. The purpose of the Gatling gun is to end war by making it unthinkable to use because of its tremendous power. However, if it is to be used on the battlefield, the Gatling gun will reduce the number of soldiers needed on the battlefield and provide the army with a destructive weapon. The Gatling gun is the first of its kind and doesn’t replace anything currently in use in the army. The following is a descriptive explanation including a diagram of how the Gatling gun works.


Type of gun gatling gun

Type of Gun: Gatling gun

The Gatling gun has six rotating barrels positioned in a cylinder which allow for the continuous release of ammunition. The crank handle (1) revolves the barrels inside the cylinder. As each barrel passes the ammunition hopper (3) a new cartridge falls into the breech therefore loading the barrel. Also as each barrel revolves inside the cylinder, the groove at the bottom pulls the firing pin (2) backwards and cocks it. Each barrel has its own firing pin (2) and breech which hits the cartridge propelled by a spring. As a new cartridge is reloaded into the breech, the firing pin (2) slides out of the groove and the spring is released propelling the pin (2) forward. When the firing pin (2) hits the cartridge, the bullet is fired through the barrel. When the barrel with the empty cartridge reaches the bottom of the cylinder, it is ejected out of the cylinder through a port.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

The popularity of Gatling guns fell due to the invention of the Maxim gun by Hiram Maxim, a machine gun with a single barrel which solved many problems that the Gatling gun had. (See Maxim Gun Pg. for more info.) However, the need for weapons with extremely high rates of fire brought the Gatling gun back into use. They came back improved and modern with electric motors for rotating the barrels rather than the original crank. This advancement improved the rate of fire making it effective on aircrafts.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Diagram of Gatling Gun for Patent

2

1

3

1

Crank Handle

Firing Pins

2

Ammunition Hopper

3


Continued

Gatling guns were used in the Vietnam War mostly mounted on helicopters. The M134 Minigun was used on helicopters as its

Continued…

primary weapon and is

considered one of the

most effective non-

explosive weapons

ever made. The

M134 Minigun is still in

use today. It was named

“Puff The Magic Dragon”

due to the red tracers

it fired which made it

look as if the gun was

spewing fire.

Gatling guns are hardly used on the ground except on turrets because of its weight, size, and amount of ammunition needed.


Futuristic view

Futuristic View

Machine guns are almost fully developed and convenient for its purpose. However, there are different types of guns with advantages over the machine gun currently being developed such as the laser gun. Many science fiction movies/games such as Starwars, Startrek, Halo, etc… portray surprisingly accurate futuristic guns.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

The M16 is the most used infantry rifle in the US army including its variants. It was used in the army starting from 1964. There are many different versions such as M16 A1/A2/A3/A4 which are upgraded versions of the original M16. The M16 A4 became the standard infantry rifle for the US Marine Corp during Operation Iraqi Freedom. The M16 family is the most universally well known machine gun and is used in most military operations. The M16 family appears in many movies, video games, and other types of media.


Parts of a laser gun

Parts of a Laser Gun

  • LASER Stands For - light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation

  • Lasing Medium – The laser gun needs a medium such as gas, liquid, or solid. The atoms which make up the medium get excited and emit light

  • Energy Source – The laser gun needs an energy source which makes the atoms become excited.

  • Mirrors – The laser gun needs mirrors to allow light to bounce back and forth inside the gun until it escapes out through the barrel.

  • Lens – Lenses are needed to focus the light into a beam.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

The Grand Technology Project

CALCULATOR

Sophia Bok 9C


Essay of the history of elevators 1

PASCALINE

  • Blaise Pascal (1623~1662)

  • First perfect mechanical calculator

  • 3 principles that is still used to make calculators

1.Take one figure up automatically

(ten ones are one ten)

2.Subtraction is adding backwardly

3.Multiply is repeating addition.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Pascaline


Essay of the history of elevators 1

FUTURE

  • Beautiful design

  • Smaller size

  • High technology

  • ( chips put into brains)

  • Lower price


History of calculator

History of Calculator

The origin of calculator is abacus from china and other Asian countries. It was constructed as a wooden frame with beads sliding on wires. The first proper calculator is “calculating clock” by Wilhelm Schickard in 1623. And 20 years later, Blaise Pascal invented “pascaline”. This was a mechanical calculator that used gears to work. He found out how to use gear to take a figure up one place. Also, he realized that one can calculate multiplication and division by repeating addition and subtraction. These principles are still used to make an electronic calculator. Pascaline was used for taxes in France until 1799.

In the 19th century people began to invent calculators again. Charles Babbage invented first calculator using engine in 1822. This mechanical calculator was called “difference engine”. In 1852, Per George Scheutz completed Babbage’s difference engine. The size of this machine was about a piano. In 1875, Martin Wiberg reduced the size of difference engine into the size of a sewing machine.

The development of commercially successful mechanical calculators started in 1870. Frank Baldwin from USA invented the pin-wheel calculator. This model was sold many thousands into the 1970s.


Essay of the history of elevators 1

There are more than fifty gears in a machine, it can calculate until 99,999,999. Eight of the gears are connected to circular wooden boards to show the number. On each board, digits from 0 to 9 are curved on it. These digits are only allowed to be seen one at a time through a small glass window. Pascaline does not need any resources to operate, it is a simple devise that required human power.

This machine is mainly invented for tax collectors. The collector will find much easier to use this machine rather than counting in their head. Pascaline will be more essential for the calculation of bigger numbers. It will improve the working condition of tax collector or other calculation needed jobs, and it will also higher their working speed. However, this machine can be used by anyone who needs to calculate big numbers and also for some who has difficulty with counting numbers.

I think there are three principles in my machine are important and worthy. Firstly, Pascaline proved that it could be automatic to take a figure up on place during calculation. Secondly, subtraction could be done by adding backwardly. Lastly, one can multiply by repeating the addition. I believe by using these three principles, better calculator can be invented soon. Therefore, I am here to request for the patent to protect my idea and my invention.

1942

Blaise Pascal


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Calculating clock

Pascaline

Original calculators


Essay of the history of elevators 1

Comptometer (first key driven )

MK6010(first “one chip” calculator)

Ragen (micro chip)

First solar powered


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