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History of Computing 1 Foundation Computing If the automobile had followed the same development cycle as the computer, a Rolls Royce would today cost $100, get one million miles to the gallon, and explode once a year, killing everyone inside. Robert X. Cringely Quiz

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History of Computing 1

Foundation Computing

If the automobile had followed the same development cycle as the computer, a Rolls Royce would today cost $100, get one million miles to the gallon, and explode once a year, killing everyone inside.

Robert X. Cringely


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Quiz

  • What is the difference between Insert and Overstrike modes?


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Quiz (2)

  • Which shortcut combination should be used to cut and paste text?

    • Ctrl-Alt-Del

    • Ctrl-x followed by Ctrl-v

    • Ctrl-c followed by Ctrl-v

    • Win-e


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Quiz (3)

  • What should you do if you’ve accidentally deleted highlighted text?

    • Panic

    • Call Microsoft for help

    • Post a message to the bulletin board

    • Use the shortcut Ctrl-z or the undo command immediately


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History of Computing

  • Why should we study the history of computing?

  • The past shapes the present and the present will affect the future.

  • Studying the history of computing gives an appreciation of what technology we have now, and what may come in the future.


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Hist. of Computing Timeline

  • Generations

    • Mechanical (Before 1945)

    • Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1954)

    • Transistors (1954 – 1963)

    • Integrated Circuits (1963 - 1973)

    • Personal Computers (1973 – ???)

    • Parallel Computers, Networking

    • Mobile Computing


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Quote of the day

If the automobile had followed the same development cycle as the computer, a Rolls Royce would today cost $100, get one million miles to the gallon, and explode once a year, killing everyone inside.

Robert X. Cringely


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Mechanical Computers

  • Counting Boards

    • Grooved wooden boards with pebbles

    • Oldest 300BC

  • Abacus

    • Used in ancient Rome and Greece

    • Modern abacus used in Asia after 1200AD

  • Slide Rule

    • John Napier (1600s)


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Mechanical Computers (2)

  • Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

    • French mathematician, physicist and religious philosopher

    • Probability theory, Pascal’s Triangle

    • Pascaline (1642) – he was very young!

      • Adding/subtracting machine with automatic carry

      • failed to be a great commercial success

      • Improved the design, built total of 50 of these

    • Unit of pressure (Pa) named after him and a programming language!!!

    • Animation of the Pascaline:

      http://perso.orange.fr/therese.eveilleau/pages/truc_mat/textes/pascaline.htm


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Mechanical Computers (3)

  • Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752-1834)

    • French silk weaver and inventor

    • Jacquard Loom

      • Weaving machine

      • Controlled by recorded patterns

        of holes in a string of cards

      • Invention was fiercely opposed

        by the silk-weavers

      • Loom was declared public property in 1806

      • He was rewarded with a pension and a royalty on each machine


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Mechanical Computers (4)

  • Charles Babbage (1792-1871)

    • English mathematician

    • Sought to eliminate the high error rate in the calculation of mathematical tables (human error)

    • Idea of a programmable computer

    • Difference Engine (1823)

      • Programmable calculator

      • Calculated polynomials

      • Produced table of logarithms 1 -108 000


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Mechanical Computers (5)

  • Analytical Engine

    • With store (modern memory) and mill (modern CPU)

    • Not completed until after his death – lack of funding

    • Could perform any kind of calculation

    • Punch cards similar to Jacquard Loom

  • "The Father of Computing"


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Mechanical Computers (6)

  • Augusta Ada King (1815-1852)

    • Ada Lovelace (Countess)

    • Worked with Babbage, wrote notes on how to calculate Bernoulli numbers with the Analytical Engine

    • These notes are recognized as world’s first computer program

    • Controversial: Who wrote these notes – Babbage or Lovelace?

    • Programming language ADA named after her


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Mechanical Computers (7)

  • George Boole (1815-1864)

    • English/Irish mathematician

    • Creator of Boolean logic (basis of all modern computer arithmetic)

    • His work was obscure

      outside philosophical circles


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Mechanical Computers (8)

  • 70 years after his death, an MIT master’s student read about his work

  • He wrote in his thesis about utilizing the properties of electrical switches to do logic

  • Became the basic concept that underlies all modern electronic digital computers

  • Possibly the most important, and also the most famous, Master's thesis of the century


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Mechanical Computers (9)

  • Herman Hollerith (1860-1929)

    • American statistician

    • Created the punched cards and associated machinery used for the 1890 US census. (based on Jacquard’s method)

    • Founded Hollerith Tabulating Company which later became IBM


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More information

  • Read more here:

    • http://www.computerhistory.org

    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page


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Quiz

  • What is the first thing you should do before searching for information on the WWW?


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Quiz (2)

  • How would you exclude a keyword from a search on the WWW?


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Quiz (3)

  • How would you start an efficient search for the fixed expression what a nice day using a search engine?

    • “what” a “nice day”

    • “what a nice day”

    • “a nice day what”

    • what a nice day


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Quiz (4)

  • Name 4 people who influenced the mechanical era of computers/computing machines


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Hist. of Computing Timeline

  • Generations

    • Mechanical (Before 1945)

    • Vacuum Tubes (1945 – 1954)

    • Transistors (1954 – 1963)

    • Integrated Circuits (1963 - 1973)

    • Personal Computers (1973 – ???)

    • Parallel Computers, Networking


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Relays

  • Relays (electromagnetic switches)

    • Faster than cranking gears

    • Mechanical, could Jam


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Relays (2)

  • Relays can be combined to create complex logic circuitry (on/off, true/false)

  • Z3 (1941), first relay calculator, built by Konrad Zuse (German engineer)

  • Programmed using punched tape


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Relays (3)

  • The first computer bug”: moth stuck in a relay

  • Mechanical parts, not very reliable, alternative sought


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Vacuum Tubes

  • Vacuum Tubes (Valves)

    • Invented 1906

    • Used in audio devices

      (to amplify a signal)

    • Expensive, large

    • Used as switches

    • Faster and more reliable than relays

    • Produced heat and wore out


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Transistors

  • Transistors

    • Invented by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs (1948)

    • Works as a switch

    • Made from silicon (cheap

      to produce from sand)

    • Smaller, more reliable

    • More energy efficient

    • Breakthrough: Made computers more affordable!


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Integrated Circuits

  • Integrated Circuits (1958)

    • Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments

    • Simplest calculator requires several thousand transistors

    • Transistors joined on

      silicon plates with

      metallic connectors

    • modern processor contains

      millions of transistors


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Innovators

  • Alan Turing (1912-1954)

    • British mathematician,

      cryptographer

    • Theoretical computer (Turing Machine)

    • Tape to store data and instructions

    • WWII Cryptography


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Q:

Innovators (2)

  • Turing Test for Machine Intelligence

A:

A:

?


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Mark I

Mark II

Mark III

Mark IV

Design Begins

Complete

Retired

Data Word

Slow Mem

Fast Mem

Instructions Mem

Basic Add Time

Basic Multiply Time

1939

1944

1958

23 dd+s

72 words

0 words

Paper Tape

300ms

6000ms

1945

1948

1956

10 dd+s+e

96 words

0 words

Paper Tape

200ms

1000ms

1948

1950

1956

16 dd+s

4000 words

360 words

4000 words

4 ms

12 ms

1950

1952

1962

16 dd+s

4000 words

230 words

10 000 words

1.2ms

12ms

Innovators (3)

  • Howard Aiken (1900-1973)

    • Large scale relay calculators (US)


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Innovators (4)

  • John von Neumann (1903-1957)

    • ENIAC (1946)

      • 18,000 Vacuum Tubes

      • 30 tons

      • 5000 additionsper sec

    • Von Neumann Architecture

      for single processor computers

      • Memory and processing unit are separate


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Personal Computers

  • Altair 8800 (1975)

    • First PC

    • Kit form

    • Less than $500

    • Sold very well


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Personal Computers (2)

  • No keyboard, monitor, permanent storage provided

  • Programmed by flicking switches on the front, output through lights


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Personal Computers (3)

  • The Apple Computer (1976)

    • Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs

    • Met while working for HP

    • Built and sold Blue Box (which could be used to misuse the telephone system)

    • Were found out


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Personal Computers (4)

  • Built first prototype in Job’s garage

  • Apple II: First pre-assembled PC (1977)

    • Monitor

    • Keyboard

    • Graphics

    • Sound


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Personal Computers (5)

  • IBM PC and Compatibles

    • Special IBM team to create affordable PC (1981)

    • Use parts from Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)

    • IBM compatible computer

    • IBM expected benefit from royalties and sales of superior product

    • IBM out-competed by cheaper computers built on generic parts


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Personal Computers (6)

  • William H. Gates III and Paul Allen

    • BASIC programming language compiler for Altair

    • MicroSoft (1975)

    • Contracted to writesoftware forIBM PC (1981)

    • MS DOS, Windows

    • Richest in worldby mid 1990s (Gates),

      7th richest (Allen)


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Famous quotes

  • “I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.”

    • Thomas J. Watson, Chairman IBM, 1943

  • “Where a calculator on the ENIAC is equipped with 18,000 vacuum tubes and weighs 30 tons, computers in the future may have only 1,000 vacuum tubes and weigh only 1½ tons.”

    • Popular Mechanics, 1949

  • “There is no reason anyone would want a computer in their home.”

    • Ken Olson, Chairman DEC, 1977


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Future?

  • Wireless computers

  • “mobile computing”

  • PDAs and Smart Phones

  • Parallel Processing and Optical Circuitry

  • Quantum Computers


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Moore’s Law

  • Gordon Moore (1965)

  • Co-founder of Intel

  • At our rate of technological development, the complexity of an integrated circuit, with respect to minimum component cost will double in about 18 months.

  • The law has largely held the test of time to date


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Moore’s Law

  • Moore’s Law first published in

    "Cramming more components onto integrated circuits", Electronics Magazine 19 April 1965


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X

x


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d


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Read the study book

  • Please read module 3 of the Study Book

  • For more information,

    • read the corresponding chapter in the text “Foundation Computing” (if you have purchased a copy)

    • Surf the web – Google or Wikipedia are a good start

    • or ask us for help on the Bulletin Board!

  • You should now be ready to attempt the first part of Assignment 3!!!


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