The beneficial and harmful effect of videoconferencing
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The Beneficial and Harmful Effect of Videoconferencing. Milton Chen, PhD Human Computer Interaction Lab Stanford University Presented at the 21 st NORDUnet Network Conference 8/25/2003. The Stanford Video Auditorium. Accomplishments.

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The Beneficial and Harmful Effect of Videoconferencing

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The Beneficial and Harmful Effect ofVideoconferencing

Milton Chen, PhD

Human Computer Interaction Lab

Stanford University

Presented at the 21st NORDUnet Network Conference 8/25/2003


The Stanford Video Auditorium


Accomplishments

  • Intel President Paul Otellini demonstrated vsee during his keynote at IDF

  • Candidate system for International Space Station

    • With Bob Bradford, MSFC

  • Featured Internet2 project to break video wall record

    • Attempt to see all 200 members of Internet2 simultaneously


Videoconferencing Solutions

* At 30 fps on a 3 GHz Pentium 4


1st Revolution: Possible

2nd Revolution: Ubiquitous

first mobile phone, 1924

first handheld phone, 1973

first videophone, 1927


“We express ourselves into existence.” - Iris Murdoch

Tyranny of real classrooms

vsee

A new hat


Eye contact stirs us to action

[Sharbat Gula, photographed by McCurry ‘83]


Eye contact fires up our brain

[Kampe et al.’01 Nature]


Eye contact?


Sensitivity is asymmetric

* 16 observers judged recorded videos of 1 looker


An anatomical explanation

looking at you

looking sideways

looking up

Illustrations from The Artist’s Guide to Facial Expression

[Faigin ’90]

eye closing

looking down


“We shape our tools, and there after our tools shape us” - Marshal McLuhan

Tyranny of real classrooms

vsee

A new hat

3:29 am


Why read lips

  • Improves comprehension

    • Background noise [Sumby and Pollack ’54]

    • Hearing loss [Binnie, Montgomery, Jackson ’86]

[Yarbus ’67]


Audio ahead of the video

  • Videoconferencing

    • 1 msec to encode 30-msec audio with TrueSpeech

    • Up to 250 msec to encode a 720x480 frame with high-quality MPEG-4

  • Detectable skew

    130 msec [Dixon and Spitz ’80]

    80 msec [Steinmetz ’96]


Conventional lip synchronization

a, v

a

v

sync

decode

decode

network

network

encode

encode

time

A

A

Audio delay line

Unsynchronized

delay

skew


Attribute delay and skew to remote person

a, v

a

v

sync

decode

decode

network

network

encode

encode

time

A

A

Audio delay line

Unsynchronized

delay

skew

=> person is slow?

=> person is not believable?

  • [Reeves and Nass ’96]


Perception of variable AV skew

* 16 subjects judged recorded videos of 1 speaker


“The heart is stirred more slowly by the ear than by the eye.”– Horace

Tyranny of real classrooms

vsee

A new hat

3:29 am

To see or not to see


Benefit of video medium

  • Facilitate communication process

    • Stimulate interactivity when group is medium size

    • Support tasks that require complex collaboration

      • Negative feedback

      • Negotiation

  • Build relationship

    • Establish identity

    • Build trust

    • Form friendship


Harmful effect of video

  • Time and resource sink

  • Make user look bad

    • Gaze less potent => are you ignoring me?

    • Gesture less potent => am I not interesting?

    • Slow response => user is slow?

    • Lack of lip sync => user is not believable?

    • Lack of eye contact => user is not motivated?[Reeves and Nass ’96]


What is a videophone

A plane that does not fly is not a plane

First flight, Wrights 1903

A videophone that limits communication is not a videophone


Summary

  • VSee

  • Findings on eye contact and lip sync

  • Poor video can be worse than no video


  • Acknowledgement

    • Prof. Ebba Hvannberg

    • Prof. Pat Hanrahan and Terry Winograd

    • Prof. Cliff Nass, Tom Moran, Anoop Gupta

  • I would love to hear from you!

    • http://vsee.stanford.edu

  • Collaborate on the Internet2 demo?


  • Login