parkinson disease
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By: Ashley & Kendra

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Parkinson Disease. By: Ashley & Kendra. What is it?. Parkinson Disease (PD) is a progressive disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer\'s motor skills, speech, and other functions. Causes. The cause of Parkinson Disease remains unknown.

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what is it
What is it?
  • Parkinson Disease (PD) is a progressive disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the sufferer\'s motor skills, speech, and other functions.
  • The cause of Parkinson Disease remains unknown.
    • Many experts think that the disease is caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
  • Scientists have identified aging as an important cause.
genetic factors
Genetic Factors
  • About 15 to 25 percent of people with Parkinson’s report having a relative with the disease.
  • Researchers have discovered several gene mutations that can cause the disease directly, but these affect only a small number of families.
environmental factors
Environmental Factors
  • Some scientists have suggested that Parkinson disease may result from exposure to an environmental toxin or injury.
  • Researchers have identified several factors that may be linked to Parkinson’s.
    • rural living
    • well water
    • manganese
    • Pesticides
  • A substance called dopamine acts as a messenger between two brain areas, the substantianigra and the corpus striatum to produce smooth, controlled movements.
  • When the amount of dopamine is too low, communication between the substantianigra and corpus striatum becomes ineffective, and movement becomes impaired.
  • The greater the loss of dopamine, the worse the movement-related symptoms
  • Parkinson Disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder.
  • It is also the most common movement disorder.
  • In the United States, about 1 million people are affected by Parkinson Disease and about 5 million worldwide.
primary symptoms
Primary Symptoms
  • Primary symptoms include:
    • tremor
    • stiffness
    • slowness
    • impaired balance
    • shuffling
  • Effects the present areas
secondary symptoms
Secondary Symptoms
  • Anxiety, insecurity, and stress
  • Confusion and memory loss
  • Constipation
  • Depression
  • Difficulty swallowing and excessive salivation
  • Increased sweating
  • Skin problems
  • Slowed, quieter speech, and monotone voice
  • Urinary frequency/urgency
at risk
At Risk
  • Most people who develop Parkinson\'s disease are older than 60 years of age.
  • Men are affected about 1.5 to 2 times more often than women.
  • People who have a family history of the disorder.
  • People who have been exposed to environmental toxins such as pesticides and herbicide.
  • There is currently NO treatment to cure Parkinson Disease.
  • For some individuals with unmanageable motor symptoms, surgery may be an option.
    • In deep brain stimulation(DBS), the surgeon implants electrodes to stimulate areas of the brain involved in movement.
    • In another type of surgery, specific areas in the brain that cause Parkinson symptoms are destroyed.
  • An alternative approach currently being explored is the use of dopamine-producing cells derived from stem cells.
  • There are many medications available to treat the symptoms of Parkinson’s, although none yet that actually reverse the effects of the disease.
  • It is common for people with PD to take a variety of these medications all at different doses and at different times of day in order to manage the symptoms of the disease.
  • General lifestyle changes (rest and exercise), physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech therapy may be beneficial.
  • Parkinson Disease is NOT preventable.
  • The severity of Parkinson Disease symptoms vary greatly from individual to individual and it is not possible to predict how quickly the disorder will progress.
  • Parkinson Disease is not a fatal disease and the average life expectancy is similar to that of people without the disease.
michael j fox
Michael J Fox
  • Actor Michael J. Fox has PD.
  • Fox was diagnosed in 1991 when he was 30, but kept his condition secret from the public for seven years.
muhammad ali
Muhammad Ali
  • Muhammad Ali has shown signs of parkinsonism since the age of 38.

1. How many people are affected by Parkinson Disease in the United States?

  • One million

2. About how old is a person who develops Parkinson Disease?

  • 60 years of age

3. Give an example of a primary symptom for Parkinson Disease?

  • tremor, stiffness, slowness, impaired balance, shuffling