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APUSH . Weber. Agenda. Benchmark exam Market Revolution lecture (20 minutes) Explicating quotes from Voices of Freedom in groups (15 minutes) Individualism discussion (30 minutes) Reading for Friday debate (time permitting). The Factory System.

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  • Benchmark exam
  • Market Revolution lecture (20 minutes)
  • Explicating quotes from Voices of Freedom in groups (15 minutes)
  • Individualism discussion (30 minutes)
  • Reading for Friday debate (time permitting)
the factory system
The Factory System
  • Samuel Slater establishes first factory in 1790
  • First large scale factories in 1814 in Waltham, Mass. Then Lowell, Mass.
  • Nature of work shifted from skilled artisan to that of factory worker.
  • Mass production of interchangeable parts assembled into standardized products.
  • New England textile mills relied primarily on female and child labor.
  • South lagged behind the North in terms of factory production.
growth of immigration
Growth of Immigration
  • Economic expansion fueled demand for labor
  • German and Irish settled primarily in Northern cities.
  • Reasons for migration (push and pull factors)
  • Filled mainly low-wage unskilled jobs
  • Racist reaction to immigration
  • Response to growing Catholic presence (Irish)
  • Nativists blamed immigrants for:
    • Urban crime
    • Political corruption
    • Alcohol abuse
    • Undercutting wages
  • Freedom linked to availability of land (Manifest Destiny)
  • National myth and ideology surrounding the “West”
  • Transcendentalists responded to competitive materialists individualism of emergent capitalism with idea of self-realization through which individuals remake themselves and their own lives
    • Ralph Emerson (“Self-Reliance”)
the second great awakening
The Second Great Awakening
  • Added religious element to celebration of individual self-improvement, self-reliance, and self-determination.
  • Charles Grandison Finney became a national celebrity for his preaching in upstate N.Y.
  • Democratized Christianity
  • Promoted doctrine of human free will
  • Used opportunities of market revolution to spread their message
limits of prosperity
Limits of Prosperity
  • Opportunities for the “self-made man”
    • Jacob Astor and Heratio Alger
  • Market revolution produced a new middle class.
  • Barred from schools and other public facilities most free African Americans and women were excluded from economic opportunities.
cult of domesticity
Cult of Domesticity
  • New definition of femininity emerged based on values of love, friendship, and mutual obligation
  • Virtue became personal moral quality
  • Women should find freedom fulfilling their duties in their sphere
early labor movement
Early Labor Movement
  • Some felt that the market revolution reduced their freedom
  • Economic swings widened gap between rich and poor
  • First workingman’s parties est. 1820s
  • Strikes were common by the 1830s
  • Wage-earners evoked “liberty” when calling for improvements in the workplace
  • Some described wage labor as slavery: “wage slaves”
voices of freedom
Voices of Freedom
  • You picked a quote from Emerson’s “The American Scholar” and from Orestes Brownson’s “The Laboring Classes” to explicate.
  • Now, share with the class in discussion groups.
  • 1. How does Emerson define the freedom of what he calls “the single individual?”
  • 2. How does Brownson define economic freedom for workers?
  • 3. What does the contrast between these two documents suggest about the impact of the market revolution in America?
  • What are some examples of individualism, the competitive me-first attitude, in modern society?
  • How do you think these things came about? Are they products of human nature or of social convention?
  • Do you think there are different kinds of individualism? If so, how would you classify them?
emerson s individual
Emerson’s Individual
  • Focus quote:
  • “It is easy in the world to live after the world’s opinion; it is easy in solitude to live after our own; but the great individual is he who in the midst of the crowd keeps with perfect sweetness the independence of solitude.”
ch 10 politics
Ch. 10 Politics
  • We will be debating whether the election of 1828 was a democratic revolution tomorrow.
  • Read ch. 10 in preparation and for Thursday’s test.