Autonomous parallel parking alex braun sergey katsev
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Autonomous Parallel Parking Alex Braun & Sergey Katsev. Overview. Objectives User Interface Algorithms Utilized Hardware Hardware Design Current Status. Objectives/Performance Specs. Follow a reflective track Receive user commands over a wireless interface Leave track and parallel park

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Autonomous parallel parking alex braun sergey katsev
Autonomous Parallel ParkingAlex Braun & Sergey Katsev


Overview
Overview

  • Objectives

  • User Interface

  • Algorithms

  • Utilized Hardware

  • Hardware Design

  • Current Status


Objectives performance specs
Objectives/Performance Specs

  • Follow a reflective track

  • Receive user commands over a wireless interface

  • Leave track and parallel park

  • Leave parking space and reacquire track

  • Minimum parking space 2 car lengths

  • Travel speed .5 – 1 foot per second

  • Capable of following any turns greater than vehicle turning radius


Implementation
Implementation

  • Vehicle:

    • 1:12 Scale model of a Lincoln Navigator

    • Chassis and drive motor from original RC car

    • Steering implemented with Futaba S3003 Servo motor

  • Power

    • 9.6V rechargeable NiCad battery pack

    • Voltage regulators used to provide 5V power to electronics and isolate power planes


User interface
User Interface

  • Remote control used to issue user commands

  • Vehicle responds with actions and LED status lights

  • Remote uses 9V battery


User interface1
User Interface

  • Status lights will indicate:

    • Current operating mode:

      • Manual

      • Automatic

        • Looking for track

        • Following track

        • Looking for Space

        • Parking

        • Parked

      • Error

    • Waiting for user parking override

      • “Turn Signal”


Sensor layout
Sensor Layout

  • IR arrows show direction of beam

  • Wireless interface used for remote control user commands (more later)


Algorithms track following
Algorithms – Track Following

  • Front sensors used to determine when to turn

  • Two turning angles

  • Rear sensors used when acquiring the track and as a backup if all front sensors are lost



Algorithms parking
Algorithms – Parking

  • Minimum parking spot size 2 car lengths

  • Algorithm iterates if can not fit in spot in one motion


Algorithms parking basic algorithm
Algorithms – Parking(Basic Algorithm)



Utilized hardware
Utilized Hardware

  • Processing:

    • Onboard HCS12

  • Sensors

    • Track Sensors

      • Fairchild QRE00034 Infrared Reflective Sensor

      • Used with a comparator to provided digital input to the HCS12


Utilized hardware1
Utilized Hardware

  • Speed Sensor

    • Fairchild QRE00034 Infrared Reflective Sensor

    • Used with a comparator and a shaft encoder to produce a timer interrupt every quarter revolution of the rear wheels


Utilized hardware2
Utilized Hardware

  • Collision Detection

    • Sharp GP2D120 Infrared Distance Sensors

    • Analog value fed to HCS12 through ADC

  • Parking Space Detection

    • Sharp GP2D150A Infrared Distance Sensor

    • Provides digital detection at ~15cm


Power consumption
Power Consumption

Component

Estimated Maximum Power Consumption

DC Motor

2.7W

Servo Motor

2W

Curb and Vehicle Collision Sensors

0.30W x 4 = 1.2W

Parking Space Sensor

0.30W

Track Sensors

.2W x 5 = 1W

Vehicle Speed Sensor

.2W

Wireless Receiver

164mW

HC-12

1W

Misc ICs and LEDs

~ .2W x 10 = 2W

TOTAL

10.6W


Hardware
Hardware

  • Ribbon cable used to connect HC12 to PCBs

  • PCBs stacked to maximize available board space

  • Final product will (hopefully) fit inside original vehicle cover


Hardware drive electronics
Hardware – Drive Electronics

  • Motor draws 1.6A max.

  • Texas Instruments SN754410 Quad Half H-Bridge used.

  • 1A sustained load capacity, 2A peak load (per half H-bridge)

  • Two H-bridges used in parallel

H-bridge functional schematic


Hardware wireless interface
Hardware – Wireless Interface

  • Ming 4-bit Tx/Rx

  • 300MHz AM

  • Uses Holtek Encoder and Decoder chips

  • Remote contains 74LS922 Key matrix decoder with debounce protection


Hardware sensor input conditioning
Hardware – Sensor Input Conditioning

  • Two quad binary comparator circuits

  • Threshold set at 4.0V, established experimentally

  • Separate voltage regulator

  • Will contain HC12 inputs for all digital sensors


Costs
Costs

Component

Retail Price

Actual Price

Vehicle Assembly

$50

$50

Track Sensors (5 total)

$3.25

$0

Collision Detection (4 total)

$48.80

$48.80

Parking Space Detection

$13.23

$13.23

Wireless Kit

$30.00

$30.00

Servomotor

$9.80

$0

H-Bridge

$1.35

$0

HCS12

$160

$0

Misc

$70

$50

TOTAL

$386.03

$192.03



Current vehicle status1
Current Vehicle Status

Receiver

Rear track sensors

Front Track Sensors

DC Motor

Steering Servo

Comparators

HCS12

H-Bridge


Difficulties
Difficulties

  • Speed Controller – “Pseudo” Shaft Encoder

  • Heat Dissipation – May have to place a second voltage regulator in parallel for drive electronics

  • HCS12 operates differently in DBUG12 mode than it does in LoadEE mode, so tracing code is practically impossible


Testing methodology
Testing Methodology

  • Unit testing of both software and hardware units

  • Unit integration and system-wide testing

  • Extensive operation to ensure proper burn-in

  • For code: “Desk Checks” by the person who didn’t write the code



Questions
Questions?

  • Thank you!


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