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History of the .int Top Level Domain. ITU-T Workshop to Develop a Recommendation to Clarify the Management of ".int“ (.int Document 005) Geneva, Switzerland 9-11 September 2003. Robert Shaw <[email protected]> ITU Internet Strategy and Policy Adviso r.

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History of the .int Top Level Domain

ITU-T Workshop to Develop a Recommendation to Clarify the Management of ".int“(.int Document 005)

Geneva, Switzerland 9-11 September 2003

Robert Shaw

<[email protected]>

ITU Internet Strategy and Policy Advisor

napoleon history is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon
Napoleon: “History is the version of past events that people have decided to agree upon.”
the story of int starts with nato
The story of .int starts with .nato
  • According to Paul V. Mockapetris (PVM), inventor of the Internet Domain Name System (DNS)
  • In early days (date?), the Network Information Center (NIC) received a request from Mark Pullen of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) to create the .nato Top Level Domain
  • As the NIC was either partially or fully funded by DARPA at that time, this was promptly done…
early days of int
Early days of .int
  • PVM joins ARPA and suggests to NATO representatives that is better choice and they agree
  • .int is created and is created…
  • PVM as proposer of .int ends up managing it
  • March 1994: RFC 1591 - Domain Name System Structure and Delegation refers to “PVM” as managing “.int”
early days of int1
Early days of .int
  • Mockapetris continues to manage the domain after leaving ARPA and returning to USC Information Sciences Institute (ISI), home of ‘IANA’ (aka Jon Postel)
  • In 1995: Mockapetris during visit to Geneva for global standards conferences approaches ITU to take over management of the .int domain
  • PVM: “I tried to get the ITU to take it over, my logic being that they should become a stakeholder in the DNS”
november 1996
November 1996
  • “Currently, registration in .int is done by IANA, and the plan is for ITU to take over management when a mutually acceptable policy is worked out.”
  • Jon Postel
int registrations
.int Registrations
  • Intended for intergovernmental treaty organizations
  • At some point, .int starts getting used also for “Internet infrastructure uses” by IANA (e.g.,
    • This later complicates things greatly…
  • Some very unusual delegations made (e.g.,, nd
draft int policy
Draft .int policy
  • Discussions with Jon Postel, Brian Carpenter and Scott Bradner and draft policy document I prepare is agreed to by Internet Archiecture Board (IAB) in early 1996
  • Policy document refers Internet infrastructure uses to IAB review
transfer about to happen
Transfer About to Happen…
  • May 1998: ITU and IANA work out procedure for transfer of the .int TLD to ITU
  • IANA - May 1998: “This procedure seems fine to us. One note is that the .INT domain has no working Whois service. I am currently constructing the database, but the former records are horrid. This should be finished within the next 2 weeks. Other than that, it looks fine to us. Thanks. Josh and –jon”
transfer about to happen1
Transfer About to Happen…
  • Fall 1998: ICANN created and Jon Postel (IANA) dies…
  • April 1999: set up by ITU and IANA
  • June 22, 1999: ITU Council endorses management of .int by ITU
  • September 1999: ITU presents policy documents to United Nations Information System Coordination Committee in NYC and gets endorsement
post icann history
Post ICANN history
  • .int gets tied up in messy politics of ICANN & US Department of Commerce & ISI transfer of IANA function to ICANN
  • ISI staff and IAB Chair attempt to arrange transfer of .int to ITU…
  • Endless emails involving NTIA, ISI, IAB and ICANN and finally seem to get green lights but….
post icann history1
Post ICANN history

December 1999 email to Louis Touton, General Counsel, ICANN

“Dear Louis,

Speaking with Karen Rose at NTIA she said that I should speak with you on how we make the contractual arrangements between ICANN and ITU for management of .int. I don\'t know whether you\'re familar with the policy docs for .int or the history but we need to discuss how to best move forward on this as it\'s been dragged out for a long time…”

post icann history2
Post ICANN history

January 2000 email to Mike Roberts, CEO, ICANN and Karen Rose, NTIA

“Mike, Karen,

I\'ve left messages with Louis Touton and sent him emailon moving forward on discussions on making the .int transfer to ITU happen but have not got any response.”

Many emails later….

post icann history3
Post ICANN history
  • Mike Roberts, CEO of ICANN
    • Transfer to ITU is on our “to-do” list
    • Transfer to ITU is “queued”
    • ICANN Staff Member: “Internet Community not ready” ???
  • 2001 and later:
    • ICANN removes ITU as secondary for .int and replaces it with ICANN
    • ITU writes to ICANN, requests that ITU related DNS resource records be not changed without discussion with ITU
    • ICANN removes delegation from ITU…
    • ICANN removes references to planned transfer to ITU on .int registration pages
itu plenipot resolution
ITU Plenipot Resolution
  • Fall 2002: ITU Plentipotentiary Conference Resolution 102 adopted by ITU Member States in instruction to Director of the the Telecommunication Standardization Bureau calls for development of Recommendation to clarify the management of .int
conclusion the way forward
Conclusion: The Way Forward
  • Let’s forget the historical record and use this workshop as a step to demonstrate positive cooperative measures…