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Diffusion, STP, and Ideal Gas Law. 12-10-09. Diffusion. Diffusion – movement of particles from a region of higher density to a region of lower density; this is caused by the random motion of molecules. What happens if I release open a container filled with green gas?.

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diffusion
Diffusion
  • Diffusion – movement of particles

from a region of higher density to a

region of lower density; this is caused by the random motion of molecules

What happens if I release open a container filled with green gas?

dalton s law of partial pressures
Dalton’s law of partial pressures
  • Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure – the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the component gases

Ptotal = PA + PB + PC …

B

A

C

A

In this cylinder, which type of gas molecule will have the highest partial pressure?

A

A

B

B

B

C

A

A

B

C

Molecule A

practice partial pressures
Practice Partial pressures
  • If the partial pressure of A is 6 atm (PA = 6), the partial pressure of B is 5 atm (PB = 5), and the partial pressure of C is 3 atm (PC = 3), what is the total pressure of the container?
derive ideal gas law
Derive ideal gas law
  • Variables
    • Pressure
    • Temperature
    • Volume
    • Number of Molecules (Moles)

What happens to the pressure when we change these?

Increase Temperature = Increase Pressure

Increase Volume= Decrease Pressure

Increase Moles = Increase Pressure

ideal gas law
Ideal gas law
  • Ideal Gas – gas in which molecules keep the exact same speed after collisions. In other words, friction does not slow them down
    • Can approximate most gases as ideal
  • PV = nRT
    • P = Pressure
    • V = Volume
    • n = number of moles
    • R = Ideal Gas Constant
    • T = temperature
ideal gas constant
Ideal gas constant
  • R = Ideal Gas Constant
  • R = 8.314
  • R = 0.0821
review celsius and kelvin
Review: celsius and kelvin
  • Celsius to Kelvin
  • TK = TC + 273
  • Kelvin to Celsius
  • Tc = TK - 273

The temperature in Kelvin is always bigger than the temperature in Celsius!!

TK > TC

standard temperature and pressure
Standard temperature and pressure
  • Because gases are easily affected by temperature and pressure changes, we need a standard pressure and temperature to refer to
  • Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)
    • Temperature = 0 degrees C
    • Pressure = 1 atm
standard temperature and pressure ideal gas law
Standard Temperature and Pressure & Ideal gas law
  • Let’s use PV=nRT to find the volume of 1.00 mol of an ideal gas at STP.
    • P = 1 atm
    • V = ?
    • n = 1.00 mol
    • R = 0.0821
    • T = 0 degrees celsius + 273 Kelvin = 273 Kelvin
more ideal gas problems
More ideal gas Problems
  • What pressure has a container with 1.20 moles of gas, 14.88 L, and 25 degrees Celsius?
more ideal gas problems1
More Ideal Gas Problems
  • A balloon has a volume of 15.9 L, 149 kPa, and a temperature of 28 degrees C. How many moles of gas are in the balloon?
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