Ideal Gas Law

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# Ideal Gas Law - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Ideal Gas Law. PV = nRT. Brings together gas properties. Can be derived from experiment and theory. Ideal Gas Equation. Universal Gas Constant. Volume. P V = n R T. Pressure. Temperature. No. of moles. R = 0.0821 atm L / mol K R = 8.314 kPa L / mol K.

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Presentation Transcript
Ideal Gas Law

PV = nRT

Brings together gas properties.

Can be derived from experiment and theory.

Ideal Gas Equation

Universal Gas Constant

Volume

PV = nRT

Pressure

Temperature

No. of moles

R = 0.0821 atm L / mol K

R = 8.314 kPa L / mol K

Kelter, Carr, Scott, Chemistry A Wolrd of Choices 1999, page 366

PV = nRT

Standard Temperature and Pressure (STP)

T = 0 oC or 273 K

P = 1 atm = 101.3 kPa = 760 mm Hg

P = pressure

V = volume

T = temperature (Kelvin)

n = number of moles

R = gas constant

1 mol = 22.4 L @ STP

Solve for constant (R)

PV

nT

Recall: 1 atm = 101.3 kPa

Substitute values:

(1 atm) (22.4 L)

(1 mole)(273 K)

(101.3 kPa)

R = 0.0821 atm L

mol K

= R

= 8.31 kPa L

mol K

( 1 atm)

R = 0.0821 atm L / mol K or R = 8.31 kPa L / mol K

nRT

V

=

P

(500 g)(0.0821 atm . L / mol . K)(300oC)

=

V

740 mm Hg

Ideal Gas Law

What is the volume that 500 g of iodine will occupy under the conditions:

Temp = 300oC and Pressure = 740 mm Hg?

Step 1) Write down given information.

mass = 500 g iodine

T = 300oC

P = 740 mm Hg

R = 0.0821 atm . L / mol . K

Step 2) Equation:

PV = nRT

Step 3) Solve for variable

Step 4) Substitute in numbers and solve

V =

What MISTAKES did we make in this problem?

What mistakes did we make in this problem?

What is the volume that 500 g of iodine will occupy under the conditions:

Temp = 300oC and Pressure = 740 mm Hg?

Step 1) Write down given information.

mass = 500 g iodine Convert mass to gram;

recall iodine is diatomic (I2)

x mol I2 = 500 g I2(1mol I2 / 254 g I2)

n = 1.9685 mol I2

T = 300oC Temperature must be converted to Kelvin

T = 300oC + 273

T = 573 K

P = 740 mm Hg Pressure needs to have same unit as R;

therefore, convert pressure from mm Hg to atm.

x atm = 740 mm Hg (1 atm / 760 mm Hg)

P = 0.8 atm

R = 0.0821 atm . L / mol . K

nRT

V

=

P

(1.9685 mol)(0.0821 atm . L / mol . K)(573 K)

=

V

0.9737 atm

Ideal Gas Law

What is the volume that 500 g of iodine will occupy under the conditions:

Temp = 300oC and Pressure = 740 mm Hg?

Step 1) Write down given information.

mass = 500 g iodine

n = 1.9685 mol I2

T =573 K (300oC)

P =0.9737 atm(740 mm Hg)

R = 0.0821 atm . L / mol . K

V = ? L

Step 2) Equation: PV = nRT

Step 3) Solve for variable

Step 4) Substitute in numbers and solve

V = 95.1 L I2

nRT

V

=

P

(500 g)(0.0821 atm . L / mol . K)(300oC)

=

V

740 mm Hg

Ideal Gas Law

What is the volume that 500 g of iodine will occupy under the conditions:

Temp = 300oC and Pressure = 740 mm Hg?

Step 1) Write down given information.

mass = 500 g iodine

T = 300oC

P = 740 mm Hg

R = 0.0821 atm . L / mol . K

Step 2) Equation:

PV = nRT

Step 3) Solve for variable

Step 4) Substitute in numbers and solve

V =

What MISTAKES did we make in this problem?