Active and passive voices
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ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICES. The voice of verb shows whether the sentence is active or passive. The sentence is active if an action is performed by the subject, and the sentence is passive if an action was performed on the subject .

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ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICES

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Active and passive voices

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICES

  • The voice of verb shows whether the sentence is active or passive. The sentence is active if an action is performed by the subject, and the sentence is passive if an action was performed on the subject.

  • The active voice is used in making a straight forward statement about an action, i.e. the “doer” of the action is the subject of the sentence. In the passive voice, the “doer” of the action is not important because the subject of the passive sentence generally obvious to everyone.

  • Simple tenses

    Active:Subject + verb (type I)

    Passive:Subject + verb to be + verb (type III)

  • Example:

  • A:Jonogrows some flowers in his garden.

  • P:Some flowers are grown by Jono in his garden.

  • A:We kill the weeds with a herbicide.

  • P:The weeds are killed with a herbicide.


Active and passive voices

  • Continuous tenses

    Active:Subject + verb to be + verb (type I) + ing

    Passive:Subject + verb to be + being + verb (type III)

  • Examples:

  • A:Santiis planting shallots in the glasshouse.

  • P:Shallots are being planted in the glasshouse.

  • A:Farmers are clearing weeds manually.

  • P:The weeds are being cleared manually.

  • A:Jonowas climbing the tree when suddenly the branch broke.

  • P:The tree was being climbed by Jono when suddenly the branch broke.

  • Perfect tenses

    Active:Subject + have/has + verb (type III)

    Passive:Subject + have/has + been + verb (type III)

  • Examples:

  • A:The young farmer has harvested his soybean two days ago.

  • P:The soybean has been harvested two days ago.

  • A:In order to increase soil fertility, farmers have used manure.

  • P:Manure has been used in order to increase soil fertility.


Active and passive voices

  • Sentence transformation

  • The negation in passive voice is performed in the usual manner, i.e. by placing the word not after the verb to be (auxiliary verb). Whereas, the interrogative form is performed by placing the verb to be at the beginning of a sentence followed by the subject and past participle (verb type III).

  • Examples

  • The area was covered by smoke from bush fire.

  • The area was not covered by smoke from bush fire.

  • Was the area covered by smoke from bush fire?

  • Plant pests and diseases can be prevented by spraying pesticide.

  • Plant pests and diseases can not be prevented by spraying pesticide

  • Can plant pests and diseases be prevented by spraying pesticide?

  • Soil fertility is being investigated by soil scientists from Unja.

  • The soil fertility is not being investigated by soil scientists from Unja.

  • Is the soil fertilitybeing investigated by soil scientists from Unja?


Active and passive voices

  • Assignment 1

    Change the following sentences into passive voice or active voice. Please look carefully on the verbs used.

  • Teak (Tectonagrandis)are planted in East Java.

  • Scientists are studying agroforestry and its benefit to farmers in Jambi.

  • The Department of Forestry grows iron wood (Eusideroxylonzwagerii) in Senami restricted area.

  • My tomato plants were attacked by root disease.

  • Forty percent of rice field in Jambi have been destroyed by flood.

  • In 2000, the CVPD disease had caused total production loss of approximately 2 billions rupiah.

  • Water in our area is contaminated by pesticide.

  • The Agricultural Faculty Unjawill open Forestry Department next year.

  • Farmers in TanjungJabunghas exported coconut oil to China since 1998.

  • During harvest time, birds eat the rice in the rice field.


Active and passive voices

  • Assignment 2

    Read the following passage carefully and identify the verbs in passive voice.

    Crop Protection Using Chemical Dusts

    The problem of applying chemicals for crop protection is greater than of spreading fertilizers. This is because a very small amount of active ingredient has to be applied to a large crop area, often to a particular part of the plant where it can be most effective. These active materials are formulated for application in a number of ways. However, dusting is the method which will be discussed in this passage. In dusting, the finely ground active ingredient, is blended down with a local filler such as a talc or clay to give a dust, usually containing 2 – 4% of active ingredient. This can be applied to the crops by hand dusters, tractor drawn dusters that blow the dust out through a boom, aircraft, or by drift dusting. The characteristics of the finished blended dust should be determined by the method of application. However, in the tropical area such as Indonesia, there is a limited choice of fillers.


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