Air temperature
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Air Temperature. Temperature : a measure of the average speed at which molecules are moving or vibrating. Air temperature the rate of motion of gas molecules in the atmosphere as a result of the absorption of energy measured by a thermometer. Temperature scales. Celsius

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Air Temperature

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Air temperature

Air Temperature


Air temperature

  • Temperature :

    • a measure of the average speed at which molecules are moving or vibrating.


Air temperature

  • Air temperature

    • the rate of motion of gas molecules in the atmosphere as a result of the absorption of energy

    • measured by a thermometer


Temperature scales

Temperature scales

  • Celsius

    • water freezes at 0o

    • water boils at 100o

  • Fahrenheit

    • water freezes at 32o

    • water boils at 212o

  • Kelvin

    • no molecular motion at 0K

    • water freezes at 273 K

    • water boils at 373 K


Conversions

Conversions

  • oF = (1.8 x oC) + 32

  • oC = 0.56 (oF - 32)

  • K = oC + 273


What determines the temperature of a place

What determines the temperature of a place?

  • Insolation

    (daily and annual cycles)

    2. Latitude

    3. Urban/Rural Surface

    4. Coastal vs. Interior location

    5. Elevation


1 insolation

1. Insolation

A. Changing angle of noon sun throughout the year changes temperature on a seasonal basis.


Air temperature

  • Why temperature difference between equinoxes?


Air temperature

  • Spring : at end of cold, short day period

    • more energy loss

  • Autumn : at end of warm, long day period

    • more energy gain


1 insolation1

1. Insolation

B. Changing angle of sun throughout the day changes temperature on a daily basis.


Air temperature

  • lag between max insolation and max temperature

    • because highest temp at time of max ABSORBED insolation


2 latitude

2. Latitude

  • Higher latitudes receive less insolation than lower latitudes

    • sun’s rays are more oblique

    • daylength is variable

    • Net energysurplus in tropics; net energy deficit in polar regions


3 urban rural surface

3. Urban/rural Surface

  • Evapotranspiration differences

  • Urban impervious surfaces

  • Urban highly absorbent (low albedo) surfaces

  • Urban fuel consumption and excess heat

  • “Urban heat island”


4 coastal vs interior locations

4. Coastal vs. interior locations

  • Water bodies have a moderating effect on temperature.


Air temperature

  • “Land heats up and cools down more rapidly than water.”

    • Therefore:

      • Coastal: smaller temperature ranges than continental locations.

      • Coastal locations have their maximum temperatures well after maximum insolation.


Air temperature

  • Lake effect in Duluth is an example of changes in temperature due to being close to a large body of water.


5 altitude elevation

5. Altitude / Elevation

  • Temperature decreases as elevation increases.

    • less mass, less

      pressure, less

      absorption


Exception temperature inversion

Exception: temperature inversion


Air temperature

  • Conditions favorable for a temperature inversion:

    • cool, clear, calm night


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