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UT Tobacco Agent Training March 6, 2009 Highland Rim Res & Educ Ctr Springfield, TN. Dark Tobacco Update. Andy Bailey Tobacco Extension Specialist Univ. of KY / Univ. of TN Princeton, KY. Dark Tobacco Topics. 2008-2009 crop outlook Dark Variety update Curing.

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Dark tobacco update

UT Tobacco Agent Training

March 6, 2009

Highland Rim Res & Educ Ctr

Springfield, TN

Dark Tobacco Update

Andy Bailey

Tobacco Extension Specialist

Univ. of KY / Univ. of TN

Princeton, KY


Dark tobacco topics

Dark Tobacco Topics

  • 2008-2009 crop outlook

  • Dark Variety update

  • Curing


Total ky tn dark tobacco 2008 crop projection county agent survey

Total KY/TN Dark Tobacco2008 Crop ProjectionCounty Agent Survey

USDA estimate for total 2008 dark crop = 87.5 million lbs.

Probably lost 1.5 million lbs of dark-fired and 0.1 million lbs dark air-cured to Hurricane Ike.

*2009 crop down from 2008 -- Reductions in buying intentions from all companies

2009 crop more like 2005 crop (40 to 45 million lbs dark-fired, 12 to 14 million lbs air-cured).


2009 dark tobacco variety guide

2009 Dark Tobacco Variety Guide

*F or A refers to use as fire-cured or air-cured variety. F/A indicates either use, with predominant use given first. Relative yield and quality scores

given on a 0-10 scale, with 10 being best for the predominant use. Dash (-) means that resistance level is unknown or not rated at present.


Kt d6 lc

KT D6 LC

  • First hybrid dark tobacco released from KY-TN breeding program

  • KT D4LC x TN D950

    • Leaf texture more like TN D950

    • Maturity should be later than TN D950?

  • Available for growers in 2007

  • Black shank and black root rot resistance

  • Improved curing and leaf quality over KT D4LC

  • Yield potential slightly less than KT D4LC


Dt 538 lc

DT 538 LC

  • Released from Newton Seed in 2006

  • Black shank resistance similar to KT D4

  • Maturity similar to KT D4

  • Yield potential slightly less than KT D4

  • Excellent leaf quality

  • Cured leaf quality superior to KT D4

    • Lugs tend to fade in color

    • May fire up from bottom more

  • Some curing problems in 2008?

  • Restrictions against DT 538 by some buyers for 2009


Kt d8lc

Sister line to KT D4LC

Same genetics, disease resistance, and high yield potential as KT D4

Different seed selection

Medium Race 0 and Race 1 black shank resistance

No black root rot, TMV, or wildfire resistance

Medium maturity

Same potential quality problems as KT D4

Restrictions by some buyers against KT D4 and KT D8 in 2009.

KT D8LC


Pd 7302lc

PD 7302LC

PD 7302LC

Danny Miller Farm, 2008

Rickard, 2008

Similar to KY 171

Good quality

Good yield potential

Race 0 BS resistant

No Race 1 BS resistance

Black root rot resistant


Pd 7309lc

PD 7309LC

PD 7309LC

Danny Miller Farm, 2008

Rickard, 2008

Similar to NL Mad

Good quality

Good yield potential

Race 0 BS resistant

No Race 1 BS resistance

No Black root rot resistance


Pd 7318lc

PD 7318LC

PD 7318LC

Danny Miller Farm, 2008

Rickard, 2009

Similar to NL Mad

Good quality

Good yield potential

Race 0 BS resistant

No Race 1 BS resistance

Black root rot resistant


2008 dark air cured variety trial yield hrrec springfield tn

2008 Dark Air-Cured Variety TrialYield - HRREC, Springfield, TN

LSD0.05 = 67 321 296 249 (total)

Total Yield/A (lbs):

3181 2973 3087 3129 3101 3306 2739 2974 3270 3252 3290 3187 2991 3167 3292

Yield (lbs/A)


2008 dark air cured variety trial quality grade index hrrec springfield tn

2008 Dark Air-Cured Variety TrialQuality Grade Index - HRREC, Springfield, TN

LSD0.05 = 11.5

Grade Index (0-100)


2008 dark fire cured variety trial yield hrrec springfield tn

2008 Dark Fire-Cured Variety TrialYield - HRREC, Springfield, TN

LSD0.05 = 39 445 419 372 (total)

Total Yield/A (lbs):

3211 3254 3116 2997 3490 3931 3757 3752 4081 3426 3207 3060 3102 3948 3799

Yield (lbs/A)


2008 dark fire cured variety trial quality grade index hrrec springfield tn

2008 Dark Fire-Cured Variety TrialQuality Grade Index - HRREC, Springfield, TN

LSD0.05 = 14.2

Grade Index (0-100)


Dark tobacco update

Evaluation of Dark Tobacco Varieties under Black Shank PressureChristian Co. – Kent Boyd Farm – Hopkinsville, KY - 2008

  • Trial set June 11

    • 42” rows, 30” plant spacing

    • 4978 plants/A

  • Predominantly Race 0 black shank

  • Plant mortality evaluated throughout season

    • 2, 4, 6, 9 wks after setting

    • Preharvest

  • Yield data collected using preharvest stand counts

  • Fire-cured

    • 2 fires over 22 days

  • 8 varieties tested

  • Randomized complete block design with 4 replications

  • 2-row plots, 80 ft. long

  • Varieties:

    • NarrowleafMadole LC

    • DT 538LC

    • KT D4LC

    • KT D6LC

    • PD 7302LC

    • PD 7318LC

    • D2602 (experimental)

    • PD 305H (experimental)


Dark tobacco update

Evaluation of Dark Tobacco Varieties Under Black Shank Pressure Christian Co. – Kent Boyd Farm – Hopkinsville, KY - 2008


Dark tobacco update

Evaluation of Dark Tobacco Varieties Under Black Shank Pressure Christian Co. – Kent Boyd Farm – Hopkinsville, KY - 2008


Dark tobacco update

Evaluation of Dark Tobacco Varieties under Intensive Black Shank PressureDaviess Co. - Tony and Joe Fischer Farm – Owensboro, KY - 2008

  • 2 quarts/A Ultra Flourish applied PreTr Inc. to entire trial area.

  • Trial set June 4

  • Plant mortality evaluated throughout the season

    • 2, 4, 6, 9 weeks after setting

    • Preharvest

  • Trial harvested September 9

    • Air-cured

  • Stripped November 13

  • 9 varieties tested

  • Randomized complete block with 4 replications

  • 2-row plots, 60 ft. long

  • Varieties:

    • NarrowleafMadole LC

    • VA 359

    • KT D6

    • KT D8

    • PD 7302LC

    • PD 7309 LC

    • PD 7318LC

    • PD 305H (experimental)

    • D2602 (experimental)


Dark tobacco update

Evaluation of Dark Tobacco Varieties

under Intensive Black Shank PressureDaviess Co. - Tony and Joe Fischer Farm – Owensboro, KY – 2008

Black Shank Resistance Levels of Varieties Tested


Dark tobacco update

Evaluation of Dark Tobacco Varieties under Intensive Black Shank PressureDaviess Co. - Tony and Joe Fischer Farm – Owensboro, KY – 2008Stand Counts throughout the season and final yield/A


Dark tobacco update

NL Madole LC

No black shank resistance

VA 359

Low Race 0, Low Race 1


Dark tobacco update

PD 305H

R0 + R1

D2602

R0+R1

PD 7309LC

Race 0 resistance, no race 1

Daviess Co. 2008


Ph gene dark varieties and race 1 2 months after setting owensboro ky 2008

PH-gene Dark Varieties and Race 12 months after setting – Owensboro, KY 2008

PD 7309LC

PD 7318LC

PD 7302LC

Black Shank Variety Trial - Tony and Joe Fischer Farm – Owensboro, KY 2008


Holdability and harvest timing of dark tobacco

7

4

5

6

8

9

Holdability and Harvest Timingof Dark Tobacco

Narrowleaf Madole

Little Crittenden

PD 7312LC

PD 7302LC

PD 7309LC

PD 7318LC

DT 538LC

TR Madole

KT D8LC

KT D4LC

KT D6LC

TN D950

Burley

KY 171

VA 309

VA 359

DF 911

Weeks After Topping


Dark air curing

Dark

Air-Cured

Burley

Dark Air-Curing

  • Curing process similar to burley

  • Requirements for dark air-cured:

    • Better air-cured barns (no outdoor structures)

      • Not as open as some burley barns

    • Wider stick spacing (12”)

    • Open firing? (heat and no smoke) – may not be needed

    • Dark more prone to sweat/houseburn and mold

      • Control with stick spacing and ventillation


Air curing tobacco

Air-Curing Tobacco

  • Harvest mature tobacco, but don’t cut late.

  • Weather dictates air-curing

  • Barn management has some effect

  • Requires slow chemical reactions to change tobacco from green to uniform brown

    • Slower for dark than for burley

  • Optimum conditions

    • 65 to 90 F (mean daily)

    • 65 to 70% RH (mean daily)

    • 15 ft/min air velocity


Air curing problems

Air-Curing Problems

  • Low humidity/high temperature

    • Drying, not a cure

  • Low humidity/satisfactory temperature

    • Variegated, piebald or green tobacco

  • Low or high humidity/low temperature

    • Green tobacco

  • High humidity/high temperature

    • Houseburn/sweat, microbial growth and excessive weight loss


Manipulating air curing conditions

Manipulating Air-Curing Conditions

  • Barn management has most effect on humidity

  • Low humidity: ▼ ventilation (2007)

    • Could add moisture to barn floor to increase humidity

    • Beware of excessive moisture and mold growth

  • High humidity: ▲ ventillation

    • Dark air-cured: Could add heat to ▼ humidity, ▲ drying

      • Dry heat from wood or coke fires


Barn management for air curing general practices

Barn Management for Air-CuringGeneral Practices

  • Housing

    • Burley: 6” spacing in barns; 4” in structures

    • Dark: 9” to 12” in barns

    • No overlap between tiers: shingle or skip tiers

  • Normally need greatest ventilation/air movement during first 3 to 4 weeks after housing

    • Exception: dry curing seasons of 2007 and 2008

      • Low temperature (≤60 F) and/or low humidity early in cure =

      • Casty green dark tobacco, light/high-colored burley

    • Barn doors/vent open except during inclement weather

    • Less ventilation needed once color is set in lamina


Air curing structures

Air Curing Structures

  • Barns

    • Inefficient use of labor

    • Inconsistent conditions

    • Long term storage

    • Stick spacing and airflow management critical

  • Other structures

    • Facilitate air movement

    • Cycle in/out of order

    • Curing not storage

    • Risk of weather damage

    • Manage covers more than barn vents and remove when cured

*Outdoor structures not recommended for dark tobacco


Low cost air curing structures

Low Cost Air-Curing Structures

  • Interest in building non-traditional barns

  • Advantage: substantial cost savings

  • Disadvantages:

    • Lower capacity?

    • Leaf quality?

  • Options:

    • Outdoor curing structures – various styles

    • Tarp barns

    • Sheds


Tarp barns

Tarp Barns


Tarp barns1

Tarp Barns

  • Ends open – lots of ventillation

  • Life of tarp: 10 to 15 years

  • Heath Thurby – Henderson Co.

    • 40 ft. x 120 ft.

    • 2 tiers high – scaffolding, wood or pipe

    • 5,000 sticks (5-6 acres dark)

    • Cost: $18,500 for metal and tarp

      $6,000 lumber for tiers

      $25,000 ($35,000+ for conv. barn)


Dark tobacco update

Curing Sheds


Curing sheds

Curing Sheds

  • Versatile – house tobacco or store equipment

  • Excellent ventilation

    • 24 ft. x 36 ft., closed on ends

    • 3 cantilever beams per shed

      • Limited housing space (1 tier)

      • Sticks can blow out on ends, need some protection (trees)

      • Dark: 80 sticks per beam (40 sticks/side), 240 sticks/shed

      • Burley: 120 sticks per beam (60 sticks/side), 360 sticks/shed

      • 3 sheds: house 1 acre of tobacco

  • Cost: less than $1,000 per shed


Dark tobacco update

Variations on Barn Designs


Dark tobacco update

Removable Tiers


Dark tobacco update

Tobacco housed 5-8 days prior to 1st firing

Fired 2 to 6 times with hardwood slabs/sawdust

3-4 days to 2 wks/fire

Initial fires (yellowing/colorsetting):

95 to 110 F

Drying: 120 to 135 F

Finishing 110 to 120 F

Fire Curing


Fire curing

Fire-Curing

  • Curing stages for dark fire-cured tobacco:

    • Yellowing the leaves

    • Setting leaf color

    • Drying down stalks and leaves

    • Applying smoke “finish” to leaves

  • Yellowing done with ventilation and no fires

    • Open vents and/or use fans for 5 to 8 days

  • Fires started when yellow spots begin to appear.

    • All vents closed except those in the top of the barn.

    • Hardwood slabs covered with sawdust.

    • Initial fires increase barn temperature to 95 to 100F,

      RH 85 to 90%.


Fire curing1

Fire-Curing

  • Color set when leaf midrib is still green but leaf lamina is uniform brown color.

    • 6 to 8 hrs to several days

  • Leaf drying

    • Increase ventilation (all vents open)

    • Heat increased to approx. 135, RH decreased to 75 to 80%

    • Lamina will crack when touched, bottom half of midrib brown (7 to 14 days).

    • Tobacco allowed to absorb moisture and then firing repeated until uniform color is achieved

  • Applying finish

    • Smoke deposits on the leaf add aroma and texture

    • Sequential low fires with no ventilation to maximize smoke levels and minimize temperature in barn.


Tobacco specific nitrosamines tsnas

4 major TSNAs: NNN, NNK, NAT, NAB

Formed from nitrosation of tobacco alkaloids nicotine, nornicotine, anatabine, anabasine during curing

Carcinogenic compounds in tobacco products

Tobacco Specific Nitrosamines(TSNAs)


Effect of seed source and n fertility on tsna trends during fire curing ukrec princeton ky 2006

Effect of Seed Source and N Fertility on TSNA Trends During Fire-CuringUKREC, Princeton, KY - 2006

PPM Total TSNA


Double crop curing curing 2 crops of tobacco in 1 barn

Advantages:

Major cost savings for barns

Fewer needed

Easier to keep labor force occupied

Barns can be consolidated closer to tobacco

Companies receiving earlier to accommodate early crop stripping

Disadvantages:

More management required

Tighter window of opportunity

Operations must be timely

All barns will not work

Curing conditions may not be ideal, particularly 2nd crop.

Steamers or misting systems must be available for takedown

Still need 2 barns worth of sticks

Where to store 1st crop during second curing

Double-Crop CuringCuring 2 crops of tobacco in 1 barn


Double crop curing

Double Crop Curing

  • Curing 2 crops of dark fired tobacco in the same barn and season

  • Increased stick spacing requirements on some contracts limits barn space

  • Major savings in barn capacity


Double cropping

Double Cropping

  • Time management:

    • Set 1st crop early May, second crop mid-June

    • Try to cure 1st crop in 5 weeks

    • Aggressive curing


Dark tobacco update

Double Crop Curing

  • 2 Crops

    • 5 weeks between transplanting dates

      • 1st crop set early May, 2nd crop set mid-June

    • 2 crops managed separately throughout season

    • Neither crop set at ideal time

      • 200 to 300 lb/A yield reduction compared to single crop set at optimum date


Dark tobacco update

  • Must manage 2 crops separately

  • when double cropping

    • Variety selection (maturity characteristics)

    • Management practices

    • Weather


Double crop curing experiment hrrec springfield tn 2005 2006

Double Crop Curing Experiment HRREC, Springfield, TN: 2005-2006

Objective:

  • Discover Best Management Practices for curing and managing two crops of dark-fired tobacco in the same barn and crop year.

    Treatment comparisons:

    • Conditioning method

      • Steaming or misting

    • Takedown method

      • Scaffold wagon or bulk

    • Time of stripping for 1st cure

      • Stripped at takedown or 3 to 4 weeks later


Dark tobacco update

2005 Double Crop Curing ExperimentTakedown and Stripping SamplesHighland Rim Research & Education Center, Springfield, TN

Stripping Samples (First Cure)

Takedown Samples

PPM TSNA

Late Stripped

Scaffolded

Bulked

Late Stripped

Steamed

Early Stripped

Early Stripped

Bulked

Misted

Scaffolded

Steamed

Misted

First Cure

4.07

Second Cure

1.54

Misted

Scaffolded

Steamed

Bulked

*

*

*

*


Dark tobacco update

2006 Double Crop Curing ExperimentTakedown, Stripping, and Delivery SamplesHighland Rim Research & Education Center, Springfield, TN

Takedown

Samples

Stripping Samples

Delivery Samples

PPM TSNA

Steamed

Bulked

Scaffolded

Bulked

Late Stripped

Early Stripped

Bulked

Early Stripped

Scaffolded

Late Stripped

Late Stripped

Late Stripped

Bulked

Misted

Early Stripped

Scaffolded

Scaffolded

Early Stripped

Misted

Steamed

First

Cure

2.96

Second

Cure

2.11

Steamed

Scaffold

Bulked

Misted

Misted

Steamed

Scaffold

Bulked

*

*

*


Best management practices for double crop curing

Best Management Practices for Double-Crop Curing

  • Conditioning / ordering:

    • Overhead misting may be preferred over steaming

  • Takedown:

    • Scaffold wagon may be preferable to bulking

  • Time of stripping:

    • Strip tobacco as soon as possible following takedown

    • Deliver tobacco as soon as possible following stripping

      *See new publication online: AGR-196


Fire curing and sawdust

Fire Curing and Sawdust

  • Sawdust shortages in 2008, will probably continue

  • Interest in developing contact list of sawmills to help growers in sourcing.

  • Charlotte, TN: Wood grinding unit that can grind wood into sawdust specifically for dark fire-curing.

  • Can reduce sawdust requirements by 50% or more by using wood chips if available

    • Still need sawdust for stem drying


Use of wood chips in fire curing

Use of Wood Chips in Fire-Curing

2008 Princeton, KY

35% Reduction in sawdust usage

Fires 1 and 2

End of yellowing

Color setting

Slabs/Sawdust

Fire 4

Finishing

Slabs/chips/dust

Fire 3

Drying

Slabs/Sawdust

Fire 5

Finishing

Slabs/woodchips


Dark tobacco update

Websites:

Dark Tobacco:

http://ces.ca.uky.edu/darktobacco

Dark Tobacco Agent’s site:

http://ces.ca.uky.edu/darktobacco/Agent.htm

Burley Tobacco:

http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Tobacco

Burley Tobacco Agent’s site:

http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Tobacco/Agent.htm


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