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MR. LIPMAN’S AP GOVERNMENT POWERPOINT FOR CHAPTER NINE. The Bureaucracy. Keys to the “4 th “ Branch. Since it links all 3 branches together it is sometimes referred to as the 4 th branch (POLICY IS KEY) Spoils System Pendleton Act (1883)

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Keys to the 4 th branch
Keys to the “4th “ Branch

  • Since it links all 3 branches together it is sometimes referred to as the 4th branch (POLICY IS KEY)

  • Spoils System

  • Pendleton Act (1883)

  • Civil Service Merit System (90% of all Federal workers)


Commissions
COMMISSIONS

  • ICC was the first (created to end price fixing by railroads)

  • Large rise in Federal Workers during depression and LBJ’s War on Poverty (crisis or social change increases jobs and presidential power)

  • Hatch Act passed 1939 to reduce gov’t workers involvement in politics but is weakened in 1993


Government Workers and Political Involvement

  • Hatch Act of 1939

    • Prohibits civil servants from taking activist roles in partisan campaigns – federal employees cannot make political contributions, work for a particular party, or campaign for a particular candidate

  • Federal Employees Political Activities Act of 1993

    • Liberalizes Hatch Act – federal employees can run for office in nonpartisan elections and contribute money to campaigns in partisan elections


The cabinet departments
The Cabinet Departments

  • 15 departments (Homeland most recent)

  • All but senior people are civil service merit system hires

  • Cabinet heads (Secy’s) are appointed by President, and confirmed by Senate, but responsible to their departments (“going native”)


  • Some departments are actually Clientele Agencies { promote interests of a given group; for example Dept. of Agriculture, Education, and Veteran Affairs}

  • Implementation is the process by which a policy/law will be actually put into operation by the agency


4 different types of oversight
4 Different Types of Oversight

  • Gov’t Corporations: Businesses established by Congress to perform a function that otherwise would be done by pvt. Business. (ex: FDIC or TVA or Post Office or Amtrak)

  • Independent Executive Agencies: usually perform services not regulatory functions (ex: NASA, EPA, CIA, GSA, SBA)

  • Independent Regulatory Commissions: created to regulate a specific economic activity or interest (ex: SEC or FED or FCC or NRC or FTC)

  • Cabinet Posts: 15 of them (example: Treasury)


Which agency provides electricity to millions of americans at reduced rates
Which agency provides electricity to millions of Americans at reduced rates?

Environmental Protection Agency

National Association of Electricians Agency

Teamsters Union

Tennessee Valley Authority

Securities and Exchange Commission


Which agency provides electricity to millions of americans at reduced rates1
Which agency provides electricity to millions of Americans at reduced rates?

Environmental Protection Agency

National Association of Electricians Agency

Teamsters Union

Tennessee Valley Authority

Securities and Exchange Commission


The iron triangle
The Iron Triangle at reduced rates?

  • Agencies

  • Congressional Committees

  • Interest Groups

  • RESULT OF ALL THESE DECISION MAKING BODIES IS POLICY MAKING

  • Recently becoming known as “issue networks”


What is an iron triangle
What is an iron triangle? at reduced rates?


Tools of bureaucratic agencies with which they “round up” support for their initiatives

Tools of Congress used to “round up” support for their initiatives

The relationship structure among bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees

Places in the bureaucratic hierarchy that keep employees in lower level positions

Overwhelmingly unconstitutional bureaucratic tools

What are iron triangles?


Tools of bureaucratic agencies with which they “round up” support for their initiatives

Tools of Congress used to “round up” support for their initiatives

The relationship structure among bureaucratic agencies, interest groups, and congressional committees

Places in the bureaucratic hierarchy that keep employees in lower level positions

Overwhelmingly unconstitutional bureaucratic tools

What are iron triangles?


To Learning Objectives up” support for their initiatives

Making Agencies Accountable

  • Executive control

    • Executive orders

  • Congressional control

    • Constitutional authority

    • Funding

    • Oversight hearings

      • Police patrol

      • Fire alarm

  • Judicial control

    • Injunctions


What s the difference between police patrol oversight and fire alarm oversight
What’s the difference between police patrol oversight and fire alarm oversight?

Police patrol oversight done by Congress, and fire alarm oversight done by Judiciary.

Police patrol oversight is constitutional, and fire alarm oversight is not.

Police patrol oversight done by Congress, and fire alarm oversight done by president.

Police patrol oversight responds to crimes, and fire alarm oversight responds to natural disasters.

Police patrol oversight is proactive, and fire alarm oversight is reactive.


What s the difference between police patrol oversight and fire alarm oversight1
What’s the difference between police patrol oversight and fire alarm oversight?

Police patrol oversight done by Congress, and fire alarm oversight done by Judiciary.

Police patrol oversight is constitutional, and fire alarm oversight is not.

Police patrol oversight done by Congress, and fire alarm oversight done by president.

Police patrol oversight responds to crimes, and fire alarm oversight responds to natural disasters.

Police patrol oversight is proactive, and fire alarm oversight is reactive.


Congressional oversight
Congressional Oversight fire alarm oversight?

  • 1. Investigatory Powers

  • 2. “Power of the Purse” (GAO and CBO)

  • 3. Appointment process

  • 4. Enactment of Laws

  • 5. Abolishment Power


Key terms
Key Terms fire alarm oversight?

  • Administrative Discretion

  • Administrative Adjudication

  • Executive Orders

  • Red Tape

  • Plum Book (top cabinet employee listings)

  • General Schedule (salary guide)

  • Dept. of Defense (largest single employer of federal civilian workers by a dept. or agency)


Where do federal employees work
Where do federal employees work? fire alarm oversight?


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