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Drift. Why Interest in Drift?. Spotty Pest Control Wasted chemicals Off-target damage Higher costs - $$$ Environmental impact Water and Air Quality Public more aware of pesticide concerns! (Negative) Spraying in more populated areas? (Suburbs). Misapplication Facts.

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Presentation Transcript
why interest in drift
Why Interest in Drift?
  • Spotty Pest Control
  • Wasted chemicals
  • Off-target damage
  • Higher costs - $$$
  • Environmental impact
    • Water and Air Quality
  • Public more aware of pesticide concerns! (Negative)
  • Spraying in more populated areas? (Suburbs)
slide3

Misapplication Facts

Source: Farmland Insurance 1996

what is drift
WHAT IS DRIFT?
  • Movement of ..
      • spray particles
      • vapors off-target
  • Less effective control
  • Possible injury to susceptible vegetation and wildlife.
spray characteristics affecting drift

Equipment & Application Factors Affecting Drift

Spray Characteristics Affecting Drift

- Nozzle type

  • Nozzle size
  • Nozzle orientation
  • Nozzle pressure
  • Height of release
  • Chemical Properties
  • Formulation
  • Evaporation
  • Drop size
  • Volume
slide7

Reducing Pesticide Drift

Nozzles, Nozzles

and More Nozzles!!

low drift nozzles
Low Drift Nozzles
  • 87% reduction in drift prone droplets
  • < 150 microns
  • Low drift nozzle @ 0.2 gal/min flow rate - 40 psi
  • Compared to 8002 Standard Flat-fan nozzle
slide9

8003 tip

80 means 80o fan

03 means 0.3 gallons per minute at 40 psi(38 ½ ounces per minute)

low drift nozzles1
Low Drift Nozzles
  • Larger droplets
  • At the same flow rate
  • Same operating pressure than standard flat-fan (SFF) nozzles.

PRE-ORIFICE

REDUCES LIQUID VELOCITY

Reduces small droplets (200 microns) by 50 to 80 percent

drift potential is influenced by
Drift Potential is Influenced by:

Droplet Spectrum (Range - big to small)

comparison of micron sizes approximate
2000 m

850 m

420 m

300 m

150 m

100 m

#2 Pencil lead

paper clip

staple

toothbrush bristle

sewing thread

human hair

Comparison of Micron Sizes(approximate)
slide14

Driftability of Spray Droplets of Varying Sizes

Crosswind @ 3 mph

  • 20 m
  • 50 m
  • 100 m
  • 150 m
  • m
  • 8 ft 22 ft. 48 ft. 178 ft. 1065 ft.

10 feet

\

nozzle drop size classes
Nozzle Drop Size Classes

Very Fine to Fine < 200 um

Medium to Coarse – 200 to 450 um

Very Coarse > 450 um

slide17

Secondary Break-Up

Droplet elongation and fracture produces small droplets

\

slide18

Sources of Spray Mist or Fines

Secondary Break-Up

Droplet elongation and fracture produces small droplets

\

slide19

Sources of Spray Mist or Fines

Aerodynamic Effects

Air friction due to speed of the application vehicle causes additional production of small droplets

slide20

Sources of Spray Mist or Fines

Aerodynamic Effects

Air friction due to speed of the application vehicle is dependent upon the nozzle orientation angle. 90o produces the greatest number of small droplets

Movement

hypro ultra low drift
Hypro Ultra Low Drift
  • 15 – 100 psi range
  • 120o pattern
  • $4.00 - $5.00
  • Fits Standard fan tip caps
spraying systems dg teejet
Spraying Systems DG TeeJet
  • Removable Pre-orifice
  • $4.50 - $5.00
slide23

Turbo Tee Jet

  • Spraying Systems
  • Flat Fan pattern
  • wider range of pressures 15 to 90 psi
  • produce fewer drift-prone droplets compared to SFF.
  • Fits standard TeeJet Nozzle caps
turbo flood nozzles
Turbo Flood Nozzles
  • Spraying Systems
  • Clog resistant
  • Wide angle
conventional ssf

Turbo Tee Jet

Conventional SSF

25 psi at 30” spacings. 20” height

turbo drop nozzle
Turbo Drop Nozzle
  • Greenleaf Technologies
  • Air Induction (AI)
  • Venturi pressure reduction chamber
  • Droplets are filled with air and expand when leaving tip
  • Better coverage
  • $10.00
tee jet air induction
Tee Jet Air Induction
  • Operates at higher psi to work efficiently
  • Needs special caps

$6.00

TeeJet Banding Tip $7 - $8.00

cp nozzle
CP Nozzle
  • Dial-an-orifice
  • Pattern similar to flood jet
  • Mainly used by aerial sprayers
weather and other factors affecting drift
Weather and Other Factors Affecting Drift
  • Temperature & humidity
  • Air movement (direction and velocity)
  • Air stability/inversions
  • Topography
evaporation of droplets
Evaporation of Droplets

High Relative Humidity

Low Temperature

Low Relative Humidity

High Temperature

Fall Distance

Wind

evaporation and deceleration of various size droplets
Evaporation and Deceleration of Various Size Droplets*

Droplet

Terminal

Final Drop

Time to

Deceleration

Diameter

Velocity

diameter

evaporate

distance

(microns)

(ft/sec)

(microns)

(sec)

(in)

20

.04

7

0.3

<1

50

.25

17

1.8

3

100

.91

33

7

9

150

1.7

50

16

16

200

2.4

67

29

25

*Conditions assumed: 90 F, 36% R.H., 25 psi., 3.75% pesticide solution

strategies to reduce drift
Strategies to Reduce Drift
  • Increase drop size
  • Increase flow rates - higher application volumes
  • Avoid adverse weather conditions
  • Consider using buffer zones
  • Consider using new technologies:
    • drift reduction nozzles
    • drift reduction additives
    • shields, electrostatics, air-assist
  • Use lower pressures
  • Use lower spray (boom) heights
slide36

Adjuvant Influence on Spray Pattern(Note Fan Angle)

Polymer Drift Supressants produce larger droplets across the spectrum, but will decrease the fan angle. Nozzles on the Left have the polymer supressant.

slide37

Adjuvant Influence on Spray Pattern(Note Uniformity of Pattern)

LI 700

R-11

Tallow Amine

Water

Source: FRI New Zealand

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