Genetic drift
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Genetic Drift. Small populations Definition Genetic bottleneck Founder effect.

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Genetic Drift

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Genetic drift

Genetic Drift

Small populations

Definition

Genetic bottleneck

Founder effect


Genetic drift

You are wandering in the tropical rainforest and a giant bright yellow spider hangs dangling in its web in front of you. How would you determine if you had discovered a new species of spider? If it was a new species of spider, what would you name it?


Why do we classify organisms

Why do we classify organisms?

  • Communication

    • Problems with common names

  • Show evolutionary relationship

  • Systematics

    • Taxonomy


Scientific names

Scientific Names

  • 18th century

    • Latin or Greek

  • Binomial nomenclature

    • Linnaeus

    • 2 word name

    • Latin

    • Writing

      • Italics

      • First word – Genus

      • Second word – species

      • Felis catus


Linnaean classification

Linnaean Classification

  • Hierarch ranking system

  • Taxa (taxon)

  • Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species


Problems with linnaean classification

Problems with Linnaean Classification

  • Species are specifically defined

  • Other groups are subjective

  • New organisms hard to classify

  • Eugenics

    • Classification of humans

    • Used to justify discrimination


Genetic drift

The following is the Linnaean classification of a moose. Match each with the appropriate category name. Hint: they are in order.

  • alces

  • Alces

  • Cervidae

  • Artiodactyla

  • Mammalia

  • Chordata

  • Animalia


Evolutionary classification

Evolutionary Classification

  • Darwin’s tree of life

  • Phylogeny

  • Group by common ancestors

  • Clades

    • Definition

    • Advantage


Cladograms

Cladograms

  • Root

  • Branch

    • Speciation event

  • Distances

  • Patterns based on

    • Hypotheses

    • Molecular data

    • Embryological development

    • Fossil record


Creating cladograms

Creating Cladograms

  • Traits inherited

    • From common ancestor

    • Shared by many

    • Examples

  • Derived characters

    • Related to speciation event

    • Show closeness of common ancestor


Reading cladograms

Reading Cladograms

  • Node

  • Derived characteristics

  • Last clade


Clades and linnaeus

Clades and Linnaeus

  • Many overlapping groups

    • Mammalia

  • Birds very different

  • Both systems are used


Dna and classification

DNA and Classification

  • Used sequenced genomes

  • More genes in common

    • More derived characters in common

    • More recent common ancestor

  • Shows relationships that can’t be seen

    • Examples


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