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Genetic Drift. Small populations Definition Genetic bottleneck Founder effect.

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Presentation Transcript
genetic drift
Genetic Drift

Small populations

Definition

Genetic bottleneck

Founder effect

slide2
You are wandering in the tropical rainforest and a giant bright yellow spider hangs dangling in its web in front of you. How would you determine if you had discovered a new species of spider? If it was a new species of spider, what would you name it?
why do we classify organisms
Why do we classify organisms?
  • Communication
    • Problems with common names
  • Show evolutionary relationship
  • Systematics
    • Taxonomy
scientific names
Scientific Names
  • 18th century
    • Latin or Greek
  • Binomial nomenclature
    • Linnaeus
    • 2 word name
    • Latin
    • Writing
      • Italics
      • First word – Genus
      • Second word – species
      • Felis catus
linnaean classification
Linnaean Classification
  • Hierarch ranking system
  • Taxa (taxon)
  • Kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
problems with linnaean classification
Problems with Linnaean Classification
  • Species are specifically defined
  • Other groups are subjective
  • New organisms hard to classify
  • Eugenics
    • Classification of humans
    • Used to justify discrimination
slide8
The following is the Linnaean classification of a moose. Match each with the appropriate category name. Hint: they are in order.
  • alces
  • Alces
  • Cervidae
  • Artiodactyla
  • Mammalia
  • Chordata
  • Animalia
evolutionary classification
Evolutionary Classification
  • Darwin’s tree of life
  • Phylogeny
  • Group by common ancestors
  • Clades
    • Definition
    • Advantage
cladograms
Cladograms
  • Root
  • Branch
    • Speciation event
  • Distances
  • Patterns based on
    • Hypotheses
    • Molecular data
    • Embryological development
    • Fossil record
creating cladograms
Creating Cladograms
  • Traits inherited
    • From common ancestor
    • Shared by many
    • Examples
  • Derived characters
    • Related to speciation event
    • Show closeness of common ancestor
reading cladograms
Reading Cladograms
  • Node
  • Derived characteristics
  • Last clade
clades and linnaeus
Clades and Linnaeus
  • Many overlapping groups
    • Mammalia
  • Birds very different
  • Both systems are used
dna and classification
DNA and Classification
  • Used sequenced genomes
  • More genes in common
    • More derived characters in common
    • More recent common ancestor
  • Shows relationships that can’t be seen
    • Examples
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