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Un repaso de. ESPAÑOL I. La gramática. Present tense verbs ( AR , ER , IR ) Definite & Indefinite Articles Personal A Irregular Verbs Ser vs. Estar. La gramática (cont). Possessives Agreement Present Progressive Commands (+ tú) 8 irregulars! DOP IOP. ¡Vamos!.

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Un repaso de

Unrepasode

ESPAÑOL I


La gram tica
La gramática

  • Present tense verbs (AR, ER, IR)

  • Definite & Indefinite Articles

  • Personal A

  • Irregular Verbs

  • Ser vs. Estar


La gram tica cont
La gramática (cont)

  • Possessives

  • Agreement

  • Present Progressive

  • Commands (+ tú)

    • 8 irregulars!

  • DOP

  • IOP


Vamos
¡Vamos!

  • How do you conjugate regular ar, er, and ir verbs?

    HABLARCOMERESCRIBIR


Definite articles
Definite Articles

  • Definite articles mean “the” and are SPECIFIC. (ie: “the” boy, “the” girl…)

  • What are they in Spanish?


¿Masculino o femenino?

Me gusta el coche verde.

  • For masculine objects, use “el” or “los” if the object is plural.

  • For feminine objects, use “la” or “las” if the object is plural.

Las rosas blancas son bonitas.


Indefinite articles
Indefinite Articles

  • Indefinite articles mean “a,” “an,” or “some” and are NON-SPECIFIC. (ie: a horse, some sports)

  • What are they in Spanish?


Aquí hay una playa.

Hay unos dólares en el banco.


Personal a
Personal “A” object is plural.

  • The “personal a” is used to separate a verb from a subject when the subject is:

    • A person

    • An important animal


Irregular verbs
Irregular Verbs object is plural.

  • The ONLY verb that does NOT take the “personal a” is TENER.

    • Yo tengo a dos hermanas simpáticas.

Tener


Conjugate the following verbs
Conjugate the following verbs: object is plural.

Salir (to leave)

Venir (to come)

Ir (to go)

Decir (to say, tell)

Ser (to be)

Hacer (to do, make)

Estar (to be)

Poner (to put, place, set)


Ser vs estar
Ser object is plural. vs. Estar

“To be or not to be? That is the question!”

  • What are the differences between ser and estar?

  • When do you use each?


Reasons to use
Reasons to use… object is plural.

  • _____________ 1. __________________

  • _____________ 2. __________________

  • _____________ 3. __________________

ESTAR

SER


Possessives
Possessives object is plural.

What is a possessive adjective?

________________________________________________________________.

¡Son mis dulces! ¡Los quiero!


Agreement
Agreement object is plural.

Nouns and adjectives must agree in ________ and in _________.

chicAS bonitAS

el lápiz azul

los zapatOS chéverES


Present progressive
Present Progressive object is plural.

Está tocando la guitarra.


Let s try it
Let’s try it! object is plural.

  • I am walking  (Yo) estoy caminando.

  • We are playing football.  (Nosotros) estamos jugando al futbol americano.

  • La Srta. Albright is talking.  __________________________.


Affirmative t commands
Affirmative “tú” Commands object is plural.

¡Dime la verdad!

Escribe, por favor.

¡Patina conmigo!

¡Escucha la música!


How to form a command
How to Form a Command: object is plural.

  • Take the “él, ella, Vd.” form of the verb. Mandato

    • Comer Timoteo come helado. ¡Come!

    • Esquiar A él le gusta esquíar. ¡Esquía!

    • Escribir Ella escribe en alemén. ¡Escribe!


8 irregulars
8 Irregulars object is plural.

There are 8 irregular “tú” commands that you MUST memorize!

¡Me gusta el ritmo!


Direct object pronouns
Direct Object Pronouns object is plural.

Do you remember the DOPs? Here they are!!

  • DOPs answer 2 questions:

    1. Who?

    2. What?

  • In a sentence, always UNDERLINE the DOP!


Where to put pronouns
Where to Put Pronouns: object is plural.

1. BEFORE THE CONJUGATED VERB

2. ATTACHED TO THE INFINITIVE

3. ATTACHED TO PROGRESSIVE


3 steps to find the dop
3 Steps to Find the DOP: object is plural.

  • Step 1: Underline the subject.

  • Step 2: Replace subject with the appropriate DOP.

  • Step 3: Rewrite the sentence.


Let s practice
Let’s Practice! object is plural.

Luisa tiene un muñeco de peluche.

(Pregunta: ¿Qué tiene Luisa?)

(Contesta: Un muneco de peluche.)

Luisa lo tiene.

La doctora está ayudando al niño.

(P: ¿La doctora ayuda a quién?)

(C: Al niño.)

La doctora lo está ayudando.

La doctora está ayudándolo.


Indirect object pronouns
Indirect Object Pronouns object is plural.

Do you remember the IOPs? Here they are!!

  • IOPs answer 2 questions:

    1. To whom?

    2. For whom?

  • In a sentence, always CIRCLE the IOP!


3 steps to find the iop
3 Steps to Find the IOP: object is plural.

  • Step 1: Circle the subject.

  • Step 2: Replace subject with the appropriate IOP.

  • Step 3: Rewrite the sentence.


Let s practice1
Let’s Practice! object is plural.

Mi novio llama a mí todos los días.

(Pregunta: ¿Mi novio llama a quién?)

(Contesta: )

Mi novio me llama.

Yo estoy escribiendo a mis abuelos en California.

(P: ¿Yo escribo a quién en California?)

(C: )

Les estoy escribiendo.

Estoy escribiéndoles.


Iop dop
IOP & DOP object is plural.

When using a DOP and an IOP, which ALWAYS goes first?

I’m not sure. What do you guys think???


The iop
THE IOP!!!! object is plural.

Una regla importante: You learned in Spanish I that you CAN NOT have lela, lesla, etc. because of the double “l” sound. You would need to replace the “le” with ___.


Let s try it1
Let’s try it!! object is plural.

  • 1. Mi amiga compra el regalo para mí.

  • Step 1: Underline the DOP.

  • Step 2: Circle the IOP.

  • Step 3: Rewrite the sentence putting the IOP first!

  • Mi amiga lo compra.

  • What does this mean in English?


2. Mis padres dan el dinero a nosotros. object is plural.

3. Ricardo contesta la pregunta para mí.

4. María hace la cama para su hermana.

Don’t forget the 3 steps!


El fin
¡El fin! object is plural.


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