Guaranteeing civil rights
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Guaranteeing Civil Rights. Post Civil-War America. Total U.S. population is 33,000,000 Slavery abolished with 13 th Amendment! 3.5 million former slaves need to be made full citizens. Many Southern states try to restrict African- Americans following the war. Deny them citizenship

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Guaranteeing Civil Rights

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Guaranteeing civil rights

Guaranteeing Civil Rights


Post civil war america

Post Civil-War America

  • Total U.S. population is 33,000,000

    • Slavery abolished with 13th Amendment!

    • 3.5 million former slaves need to be made full citizens.

  • Many Southern states try to restrict African- Americans following the war.

    • Deny them citizenship

    • Deny voting rights

    • Ku Klux Klan violence


The reconstruction response

The Reconstruction Response

  • 13th Amendment (Dec 6th, 1865)

    • Abolished slavery!

  • Civil Rights Act of 1866 & 14th Amendment (July 9th, 1868)

    • Defined all people born in the United States as U.S. Citizens.

    • Equal Protection Clause

  • 15th Amendment (1870)

    • Made illegal denying any citizen the right to vote based on race/color.

  • Civil Rights Act of 1875

    • Banned discrimination (segregation) in public accommodations.

      • Hotels, Jury Duty, stores, etc.


Failure of reconstruction

Failure of Reconstruction

  • SCOTUS strikes down most Civil Rights Acts.

    • Narrowly interpreted the 13th-15th Amendments.

    • Said Fed. Govt. could not stop individuals from discriminating.

  • After 1876, U.S. Army stops occupying South.

    • Southern state govts. start passing Jim Crow Laws

    • Reconstruction over.

Justice Harlan


Jim crow laws

Jim Crow Laws

  • De Jure Segregation of Blacks in South from whites.

  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

    • Separate-but-equal discrimination a-okay.

    • Almost Everything segregated, schools, theatres, trains, bathrooms.


Life for african americans

Life for African-Americans

  • Many reduced to share-cropping

    • Farming someone else’s land.

    • Lots of debt, most families are tied to land.

  • Constant discrimination and intimidation

    • No legal protection from violence.

    • No rights.

  • Options?

    • Migration.

    • Stay in South.


African american resistance

African-American Resistance

  • Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)

  • Accommodated Jim Crow laws.

  • Stressed education and economic advancement.

  • WEB du Bois (1868-1963)

  • Stressed full political equality had to come first.

  • Co-founded the NAACP (1909)


African american resistance1

African-American Resistance

  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (1909)

    • Used legal system to achieve civil rights.

  • World Wars I and II.

    • Emboldened African-Americans who served as soldiers/worked in factories.


The civil rights movement begins

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

  • 1954 – Brown v. Board of Education

    • Banned segregation in all public schools.


The civil rights movement begins1

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

  • Largely non-violent active resistance.

    • Challenged legal discrimination.

    • Provoked responses from segregationists.

  • Many groups made up the movement.

    • NAACP

    • SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)

    • CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)

    • Black Panthers (Black Nationalism)


The civil rights movement

THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956)

    • Inspired by Rosa Parks

    • Forced South to pay economically for segregation.

  • Freedom Rides and Freedom Summer (1960-1961)

    • Northern Whites/Blacks went down to South to help register African-Americans.

  • March on Washington (1963)

    • Brought worldwide attention to segregation in the U.S.

    • Forced Fed. Govt. to react.


Civil rights legislation

CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION

  • Civil Rights Act 1957 (sept. 9th)

    • Tried to ban discrimination in voting.

    • Not very effective.

  • Civil Rights Act of 1960

    • Extended 1957 Act.

    • Gave federal govt. more inspection powers in voter registration.


Civil rights legislation1

CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION

  • Civil Rights Act of 1964

    • Outlawed segregation

    • Cut funding to state govt.’s found encouraging it!

  • Voting Rights Act of 1965

    • Banned discriminatory voting practices.

      • Grandfather clause, poll taxes, etc.

      • Reinforced by 24th Amendment

    • Monitored areas of historic discrimination (Article 5)


End of the civil rights movement

End of the Civil Rights Movement?

  • 1964-1968 Movement shifts to economic issues.

    • MLK jr. tries to focus on Northern ghettoes.

    • Black Nationalism flares up, White resentment increases.

  • MLK jr. assassinated (April 4th, 1968)

  • Civil Rights Act of 1968

    • Fair Housing Act

    • “Prohibited discrimination in housing, renting.”


Early women s rights movement

Early Women’s Rights Movement

  • Seneca Falls Convention (1848)

    • Early Women’s Suffrage voting meeting.

  • Suffrage

    • “Right to vote gained through Democratic process”

Lucretia Mott

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Frederick Douglass


Early women s rights movement1

Early Women’s Rights Movement

  • Women organize voting rights’ groups.

    • (1890) National American Women Suffrage Association.

  • (1919) 19th Amendment passed! No more voting discrimination based on sex.


Youth voting rights

Youth Voting Rights

  • Jumping ahead to the Vietnam Era…

    • 1954-1972

    • Men can be drafted at age 18, but cannot vote until 21.

  • 26th Amendment (July 1st, 1971)

    • Lowered voting age from 21 to 18.


Modern day civil rights movements

Modern-Day Civil Rights Movements?

  • LGBT Worldwide Campaigns,

    • Marriage Equality?

  • Ableism/Disability Movements.

    • Discrimination against those with disabilities.


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