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Guaranteeing Civil Rights. Post Civil-War America. Total U.S. population is 33,000,000 Slavery abolished with 13 th Amendment! 3.5 million former slaves need to be made full citizens. Many Southern states try to restrict African- Americans following the war. Deny them citizenship

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post civil war america
Post Civil-War America
  • Total U.S. population is 33,000,000
    • Slavery abolished with 13th Amendment!
    • 3.5 million former slaves need to be made full citizens.
  • Many Southern states try to restrict African- Americans following the war.
    • Deny them citizenship
    • Deny voting rights
    • Ku Klux Klan violence
the reconstruction response
The Reconstruction Response
  • 13th Amendment (Dec 6th, 1865)
    • Abolished slavery!
  • Civil Rights Act of 1866 & 14th Amendment (July 9th, 1868)
    • Defined all people born in the United States as U.S. Citizens.
    • Equal Protection Clause
  • 15th Amendment (1870)
    • Made illegal denying any citizen the right to vote based on race/color.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1875
    • Banned discrimination (segregation) in public accommodations.
      • Hotels, Jury Duty, stores, etc.
failure of reconstruction
Failure of Reconstruction
  • SCOTUS strikes down most Civil Rights Acts.
    • Narrowly interpreted the 13th-15th Amendments.
    • Said Fed. Govt. could not stop individuals from discriminating.
  • After 1876, U.S. Army stops occupying South.
    • Southern state govts. start passing Jim Crow Laws
    • Reconstruction over.

Justice Harlan

jim crow laws
Jim Crow Laws
  • De Jure Segregation of Blacks in South from whites.
  • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
    • Separate-but-equal discrimination a-okay.
    • Almost Everything segregated, schools, theatres, trains, bathrooms.
life for african americans
Life for African-Americans
  • Many reduced to share-cropping
    • Farming someone else’s land.
    • Lots of debt, most families are tied to land.
  • Constant discrimination and intimidation
    • No legal protection from violence.
    • No rights.
  • Options?
    • Migration.
    • Stay in South.
african american resistance
African-American Resistance
  • Booker T. Washington (1856-1915)
  • Accommodated Jim Crow laws.
  • Stressed education and economic advancement.
  • WEB du Bois (1868-1963)
  • Stressed full political equality had to come first.
  • Co-founded the NAACP (1909)
african american resistance1
African-American Resistance
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (1909)
    • Used legal system to achieve civil rights.
  • World Wars I and II.
    • Emboldened African-Americans who served as soldiers/worked in factories.
the civil rights movement begins
The Civil Rights Movement Begins
  • 1954 – Brown v. Board of Education
    • Banned segregation in all public schools.
the civil rights movement begins1
The Civil Rights Movement Begins
  • Largely non-violent active resistance.
    • Challenged legal discrimination.
    • Provoked responses from segregationists.
  • Many groups made up the movement.
    • NAACP
    • SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
    • CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)
    • Black Panthers (Black Nationalism)
the civil rights movement
THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955-1956)
    • Inspired by Rosa Parks
    • Forced South to pay economically for segregation.
  • Freedom Rides and Freedom Summer (1960-1961)
    • Northern Whites/Blacks went down to South to help register African-Americans.
  • March on Washington (1963)
    • Brought worldwide attention to segregation in the U.S.
    • Forced Fed. Govt. to react.
civil rights legislation
CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION
  • Civil Rights Act 1957 (sept. 9th)
    • Tried to ban discrimination in voting.
    • Not very effective.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1960
    • Extended 1957 Act.
    • Gave federal govt. more inspection powers in voter registration.
civil rights legislation1
CIVIL RIGHTS LEGISLATION
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
    • Outlawed segregation
    • Cut funding to state govt.’s found encouraging it!
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965
    • Banned discriminatory voting practices.
      • Grandfather clause, poll taxes, etc.
      • Reinforced by 24th Amendment
    • Monitored areas of historic discrimination (Article 5)
end of the civil rights movement
End of the Civil Rights Movement?
  • 1964-1968 Movement shifts to economic issues.
    • MLK jr. tries to focus on Northern ghettoes.
    • Black Nationalism flares up, White resentment increases.
  • MLK jr. assassinated (April 4th, 1968)
  • Civil Rights Act of 1968
    • Fair Housing Act
    • “Prohibited discrimination in housing, renting.”
early women s rights movement
Early Women’s Rights Movement
  • Seneca Falls Convention (1848)
    • Early Women’s Suffrage voting meeting.
  • Suffrage
    • “Right to vote gained through Democratic process”

Lucretia Mott

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Frederick Douglass

early women s rights movement1
Early Women’s Rights Movement
  • Women organize voting rights’ groups.
    • (1890) National American Women Suffrage Association.
  • (1919) 19th Amendment passed! No more voting discrimination based on sex.
youth voting rights
Youth Voting Rights
  • Jumping ahead to the Vietnam Era…
    • 1954-1972
    • Men can be drafted at age 18, but cannot vote until 21.
  • 26th Amendment (July 1st, 1971)
    • Lowered voting age from 21 to 18.
modern day civil rights movements
Modern-Day Civil Rights Movements?
  • LGBT Worldwide Campaigns,
    • Marriage Equality?
  • Ableism/Disability Movements.
    • Discrimination against those with disabilities.
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