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Chapter 4: Heredity Section1- Genetics. Life Science Lesson Plan. Inheriting Traits. Create a short list of characteristics about yourself…. Heredity. Heredity is the passing of traits from parents to offspring .

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Chapter 4 heredity section1 genetics

Chapter 4: HereditySection1- Genetics

Life Science

Lesson Plan


Inheriting traits
Inheriting Traits

  • Create a short list of characteristics about yourself…


Heredity
Heredity

  • Heredityis the passing of traits from parents to offspring.

  • Inherited Traits- Traits that are passed from parents to their offspring (through fertilization)


Genes are passed down but what are genes
Genes are passed down… but what are genes?

  • Genes - Sections of DNA on a chromosome.

  • Genes on chromosomes control the traits that show up in an organism.

    • There are hundreds of genes on a chromosome


  • Alleles are different forms of a trait that a gene may contain.

    • There are TWO alleles for every trait

  • Example: Height

    • 1 allele is tall (T)

    • 1 allele is short (t)


Alleles

alleles

a gene

Alleles


Genetics
GENETICS

  • Genetics- the study of inherited traits.

  • Gregor Mendel-The Father of Genetics “The Man”



Mendel s experiment
Mendel’s Experiment

  • Mendel studied the traits of Pea Plants

    • Look Page 105

  • Crossed 2 Plants with different expressions of the trait

    • Example- Tall (T)& Short (t)

    • Round (R) & Wrinkled (r)


Mendel s experiment1
Mendel’s Experiment

  • When the plants were crossed he discovered that the new plant formed looked like one of the two parents.

  • Take a look…

    Mendel’s Tall vs. Short Plants



Hybrid vs purebred
Hybrid vs. Purebred pollinate by hand the flowers.

  • 3.Purebreds- offspring that receives two of the same alleles for a trait (TT or tt)


Hybrid vs purebred1
Hybrid vs. Purebred pollinate by hand the flowers.

  • 4. Hybrids- offspring that receives two different alleles for a trait (Tt)


OR…… pollinate by hand the flowers.


Check out these websites
Check out these websites! pollinate by hand the flowers.

  • http://www.switcheroozoo.com/zoo.htm

  • http://www.buildyourwildself.com/


2 types of alleles
2 Types of Alleles pollinate by hand the flowers.

a. Dominantallele- covers up or dominates the other trait.

Represented by a CAPITAL

b. Recessive allele- the trait seems to disappear

Represented by a lower case


Homozygous vs heterozygous
Homozygous vs. Heterozygous pollinate by hand the flowers.

  • Homozygous – an organism with 2 alleles for one trait that are the same (written TT)

    6

  • Heterozygous – an organism with 2 alleles for one trait that are different (written Tt)


Phenotype vs genotype
Phenotype vs. Genotype pollinate by hand the flowers.

  • Genotype-the genetic-makeup of an organism (types of letters used)


Phenotype vs genotype1
Phenotype vs. Genotype pollinate by hand the flowers.

  • Phenotype- the way an organism physically looks/behaves as a result of its genotype.

  • Types of Words used: Tall, Short, Blonde, Brown, etc.


The use of punnett squares
The Use of pollinate by hand the flowers.Punnett Squares

  • A Punnett Square can help you predict what an offspring will look like.

  • For example, Male and Female Chromosomes


Check out the punnett square screencast
Check out the Punnett Square Screencast! pollinate by hand the flowers.


Chapter 4 part 2 genetics since mendel

Chapter 4 pollinate by hand the flowers.Part 2- Genetics Since Mendel

Life Science


Question
Question… pollinate by hand the flowers.

  • If you crossed Purebred Red four- o’clock plants with Purebred White four-o’clock plants, what would the offspring look like?



  • Incomplete Dominance- pollinate by hand the flowers.when two homozygous parents combine, the offspring results in a mixed (or blended) phenotype

  • Remember the chickens?!?!


  • When neither allele for a trait is pollinate by hand the flowers.Dominant.

  • The phenotype produced is a blending between the two homozygous parents.

    • The combining of Purebred Red & Purebred White produced PINK plants.



Multiple alleles
Multiple Alleles alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • A trait that is controlled by Having more than two alleles is controlled by Multiple Alleles.

  • Traits controlled by Multiple Alleles produce more than threephenotypes of that trait.


Example of multiple alleles
Example of Multiple Alleles… alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Blood Types: A, B, AB, and O.

    • The O allele is recessive to both A and B


Other worksheet
Other Worksheet… alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Phenotype A - AA or Ao Genotype

  • Phenotype B – BB or Bo Genotype

  • Phenotype AB – AB

  • Phenotype O – oo Genotype


Polygenic inheritance
Polygenic Inheritance alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Polygenic Inheritance- when a group of gene pairs acts together to produce one trait.

    • Which creates more variety in phenotypes


  • What would be an example? alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Many traits such as…Eye Color, Hair Color, Skin tone, & Handspan are traits produced by a combination of genes.


Human genes mutations
Human Genes & Mutations alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • What are Mutations?!?!?


Mutations
Mutations alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Mutations - a permanent change in the DNA sequence

  • A mutation can be harmful, beneficial, or cause no effect.


Chromosome disorder
Chromosome Disorder alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Chromosome disorders- caused by more or fewer chromosomes than normal

    • Downs Syndrome- caused by an extra chromosome (trisomy) at Chromosome 21


Recessive genetic disorders
Recessive Genetic Disorders alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Recessive Genetic Disorders are disorders passed through the Recessive alleles.

  • Both parents contain the recessiveallele (containing the disorder) that comes together in the offspring.


  • When both parents are alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…Heterozygous, they do not show any symptoms

    • (Called “carriers” for the trait.)

  • Example- Cystic Fibrosis is a homozygous recessive disorder.


Sex linked disorders
Sex-Linked Disorders alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • An allele inherited on a sex chromosomes ( X or Y ) is called a sex-linked gene.

  • Inherited conditions are linked with the X and Y chromosomes.


  • Example- alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…Color Blindness and Hemophilia


  • Pedigree alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…- used to follow or trace traits through generations of a family.


Section 3
Section 3 alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Advances in Genetics

    A. Genetic Engineering- experimentations that changes the arrangement of DNA that makes up a gene.


Types
Types: alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Recombinant DNA

  • Inserting a useful section of DNA into a bacteria

  • Example- Creating Insulin (Page 143)


  • Gene Therapy alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…-

  • When a “normal allele” is placed into a virus, the virus then delivers the normal allele when it infects a specific cell. (Figure 13 Page 144)

  • May be used to control Cystic Fibrosis and other disorders.


  • Genetically Engineering Plants- alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • Plants are created by genetically inserting the desired genes of one plant into another plant you want to show those genes.

  • Also genetically engineered: ANIMALS

    • “Cloning”


Works cited
Works Cited alleles, many traits can be controlled by more than two alleles…

  • www.coolclips.com

  • http://kentsimmons.uwinnipeg.ca/cm1504/mendel.htm

  • www.classzone.com

  • www.dkimages.com

  • www.virtualsciencefair.org

  • www.scienceray.com


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