Pg 30 32 genetics
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PG 30-32 GENETICS. NOTES AND VOCABULARY. Genetics - the study of heredity . Heredity - a set of characteristics received from parents. Raising useful plants and animals . Prevention and treatment of diseases . Discovering the secrets of life on Earth. Solving crimes .

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PG 30-32 GENETICS

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Pg 30 32 genetics

PG 30-32GENETICS

NOTES AND VOCABULARY


Pg 30 32 genetics

  • Genetics - the study of heredity.

  • Heredity - a set of characteristics received from parents.


Uses for genetics

  • Raising useful plants and animals.

  • Prevention and treatment of diseases.

  • Discovering the secrets of life on Earth.

  • Solving crimes.

USES FOR GENETICS


Gregor mendel

  • Known as the “father of genetics.”

  • Was both religious and scientific.

  • Introduced this branch of science to the world by cross-breeding plants, studying traits being passed along, and producing hybrids.

Gregor Mendel


Difference between mendelian genetics and non mendelian genetics

  • Mendelian inheritance does not take account of recombination or mutation.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MENDELIAN GENETICS AND NON-MENDELIAN GENETICS


Definitions

  • True-breeding (purebred) - an organism with parents having the same traits.

  • Hybrid - an organism with parents having different traits.

  • Genes - parts of chromosomes that “carry” traits.

  • Alleles - different forms of a gene.

DEFINITIONS


Alleles

  • Dominant - an allele that excludes the recessive form.

  • Recessive - an allele that is not expressed in the presence of a dominant allele.

  • AA - HOMOZYGOUS DOMINANT (same big)

  • Aa - HETEROZYGOUS (AKA: CARRIER - an organism that “carries” a recessive gene that is not expressed.) (different alleles)

  • aa - HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE (same small)

ALLELES


What is the difference between phenotype and genotype

  • Phenotype - displays the physical form of a trait.

    • Only what you can see when you look at an organism.

  • Genotype - displays the genetic form of a trait.

    • Only what the genes express…you may not be able to tell.

  • What is the difference between phenotype and genotype?


    Punnett squares

    • Punnett Square - a process used to determine the probability of offspring traits.

    • Probability - studies the likelihood of occurrence of random events.

    • Monohybrid - comparing one trait in a Punnett square.

    • Dihybrid - comparing two traits in a Punnett square.

    PUNNETT SQUARES


    More definitions

    • Multiple alleles - a type of gene that is determined by more than 2 alleles.

    • Complete dominance - a heterozygous condition in which both alleles are partially expressed. This results in an intermediate phenotype.

    • Incomplete dominance - a form of intermediate inheritance in which one allele for a specific trait is not completely dominant over the other allele. This results in a combined phenotype.

    • Codominance - a condition in which both alleles of a gene pair in a heterozygote are fully expressed, with neither one being dominant or recessive to the other.

    MORE DEFINITIONS


    Last definitions

    • Polygenic traits - traits for which the phenotype (appearance) depends on alleles in multiple genes.

    • Sex-linked traits - traits associated with a gene that is carried only by the male or female parent.

    • DNA fingerprinting - a technique to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA.

    LAST DEFINITIONS!!!


    Blood typing chart

    BLOOD TYPING CHART


    Three conclusions to his research

    Three Conclusions to His Research

    • Principle of Dominance and Recessiveness

      One allele in a pair may mask the effect of the other

    • Principle of Segregation

      The two alleles for a characteristic separate during the formation of eggs and sperm

    • Principle of Independent Assortment

      The alleles for different characteristics are distributed to reproductive cells independently.


    Mendelian genetics

    Mendelian genetics

    • Character (heritable feature, i.e., fur color)

    • Trait (variant for a character, i.e., brown)

    • True-bred (all offspring of same variety)

    • Hybridization

      (crossing of 2 different true-breds)

    • P generation (parents)

    • F1 generation (first filial generation)

    • F2 generation (second filial generation)

    • Testcross: breeding of a recessive homozygote X dominate phenotype (but unknown genotype)


    How can the chances of an offspring s traits be determined

    How can the Chances of an Offspring’s Traits be Determined?

    • BY USING A PUNNETT SQUARE

    • Get out your Guinea Pig Dihybrid Cross

    • I will call up students to fill in one square on the example dihybrid cross on the board until we complete the problem.


    What about 2 traits

    What about 2 Traits?

    • BbLl x BbLl

    • The Gametes contain one of each of the alleles. (BL).

    • Each of the offspring contain four alleles exactly like the parents.(BbLl).

    • Notice the number of possible offspring has increased.

    • The phenotypic ratio is 9:3:3:1


    Bbll x bbll

    BbLl x BbLl


    Now on your own

    Now on your own…

    Work the Dihybrid Crosses on your own.


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