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Warm Up. Set up Chapters 12 and 13 title page on page ………. Warm Up- Page 1. What motivates you to do well in school? 2. What motivates you to be a good friend? 3. What motivates you to eat? Conversion Disorder-

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warm up
Warm Up
  • Set up Chapters 12 and 13 title page on page ……….
  • Warm Up- Page
    • 1. What motivates you to do well in school?
    • 2. What motivates you to be a good friend?
    • 3. What motivates you to eat?
    • Conversion Disorder-
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdsWEiarCag&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
warm up1
Warm Up
  • Pick up all 4 sheets of paper
motivation guides behavior
Motivation Guides Behavior
  • Motivation: is a need or desire that serves to energize behavior.
  • Behavior is guided by both physiological and psychological needs/desires.
evolutionary motivators
Evolutionary Motivators
  • Instinct: inherited pattern of behavior that is unlearned. Most common in species outside of humans.
  • Ex: Imprinting
internal motivation
Internal Motivation
  • How do you know when it is time for a glass of water?
this feeling of thirstiness creates a drive
This Feeling of Thirstiness Creates a Drive
  • Drive: type of motivation that is experienced as an aroused state of psychological /physiological tension caused by some need. Ex: Sex Drive
  • Drives motivate us to do something.
  • The goal of our body according to some psychologists, is to ELIMINATE all drives so that we can experience homeostasis: a balanced or constant internal state that the body regulates.
      • Thermostat
drive reduction theory
Drive Reduction Theory
  • Drive Reduction Theory: idea that physiological needs create tension states (drives) which motivates organism to satisfy the need.
  • Ex: Thirstiness (physiological need) creates tension state (drive) which motivates you to get water.
  • After you drink, the drive is reduced and you are closer to homeostasis.
external incentives also influence motivation
External Incentives Also Influence Motivation
  • Incentives: a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior apart from “need” to reduce drives.
  • Ex: money, etc.
theory of optimal arousal
Theory of Optimal Arousal
  • Although our bodies try to reduce tension inducing arousal, organisms are often motivated by curiosity (not a physiological need) and seek out arousal which may help them gain access to information and resources.
  • Organisms want to avoid boredom.

Babies Explore their surroundings out of curiosity.

know components of abraham maslow s hierarchy of needs
Know Components of Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • -Physical Needs at bottoms must be met first.
  • -Psychological goals come after…ultimate goal is self actualization.
pyramid
Pyramid
  • Satisfaction- indicate the degree to which you are satisfied that your needs have been met at each level
  • 1 totally unsatisfied to 6 totally satisfied
self test
Self Test
  • 1st- reverse numbers 2,5,6,8,9,11,13 and 14
      • ( 6=1,5=2,4=3,3=4,2=5,1=6)
  • 2nd- Add up all numbers (use reversed numbers)
  • Total Scores range from 15 to 90. Average score being a 60
think about it
Think about it……………..
  • Why do you eat? ( need at least 3 reasons)
physiology and hunger

Subject swallows

balloon, which

measures stomach

contraction

Subject presses

key each time

when hungry

Stomach contractions

Hunger pangs

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Time in minutes

Physiology and Hunger
  • Stomach contractions (hunger pangs) accompany our feelings of hunger.
body chemistry s influence on hunger
Body Chemistry’s Influence on Hunger
  • Glucose: blood sugar that provides energy to the body tissues.
  • When your glucose levels are LOW you will feel hungry, when glucose levels are HIGH you will feel full.
  • The hormone insulin is the primary regulator of glucose levels.
  • Without insulin the body does not effectively dispose of glucose and provide it as energy (diabetes).
neurotransmitters influence on hunger
Neurotransmitters Influence on Hunger
  • Like glucose, if the following neurotransmitters are at low levels you will feel hungry, and if they are at high levels you will feel full:
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
    • Serotonin
the brain and hunger
The Brain and Hunger
  • The hypothalamus is the main brain structure which monitors hunger along with other maintenance activities.
  • The lateral hypothalamus brings on hunger; if destroyed no interest in food/stimulation will do opposite.
  • The ventromedial hypothalamus depresses hunger; if destroyed animal will overeat/stimulation will do opposite.
think about it1
Think about it …………………
  • What causes some people to become obese?
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yDbocZ438f0&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1&safe=active
brain chemical that affects hunger
Brain Chemical that Affects Hunger
  • Leptin: is a protein produced by bloated fat cells; when these levels rise the body tells you to stop eating and pursue some type of activity.
  • Mice Experiment
hunger hormones
Hunger Hormones
  • Insulin- controls blood glucose
  • Orexin- increases hunger
  • Ghrelin- “I’m hungry”
  • PYY- “I’m Not Hungry”
genetic influences on hunger weight
Genetic Influences on Hunger /Weight
  • Number of fat cells is determined by genetics to a certain extent.
  • Set Point: body’s ideal weight set by its “weight thermostat.”
  • When body falls below weight; hunger increases and a lowered metabolic rate continues.
  • Basal Metabolic Rate (metabolism): body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.
    • Some individuals’ metabolisms are much higher than others.
time s affect on hunger
Time’s Affect on Hunger
  • Memory of our last meal can also affect hunger along with our schedule of when we usually eat.
  • Amnesia Patients Example.
learning and hunger
Learning and Hunger
  • If good eating habits are positively reinforced and bad habits punished, children will often eat healthy.
  • People can also develop taste aversions due to certain associations. Ex: chemotherapy patients.
  • Modeling: modeling of healthy or poor eating habits can effect a child’s eating.
    • Ex: Lebron James drinks Sprite.
culture s influence on eating
Culture’s Influence on Eating
  • Although our preferences for sweet and salty foods are genetic and universal, our culture’s eating norms affect our specific eating habits.

Monkey Stew is a popular dish in some Eastern cultures.

This steak would seem repulsive to eat to most Hindus.

culture s influence on eating disorders
Culture’s Influence on Eating (disorders)
  • Many argue the impossible standards of beauty put out by popular culture has lead to an increase in eating disorders:
  • Anorexia Nervosa: eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet still feels fat and starves themselves.
  • Bulimia Nervosa: an eating disorder usually characterized by excessive eating followed by vomiting.
  • Binge Eating Disorder-
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VS2mfWDryPE&feature=fvw
women s distorted ideals of body image
Women’s Distorted Ideals of Body Image

Thinnest

Fattest

Women’s

ideal

Women’s

current

body image

What women

believed men

preferred

What men

actually

preferred

quick write
Quick Write
  • Discuss the various physiological and psychological factors that are involved in appetite regulation. Pgs 459-497
  • You MUST use specific info. At least 5 vocab terms. Underline the terms.
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