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ZERO-EMISSION ENERGY PLANTS. Dr. Robert ‘Bob’ Wright Senior Program Manager Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels Office of Fossil Energy U. S. Department of Energy Washington, DC The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference Global Energy Management Institute

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ZERO-EMISSION ENERGY PLANTS

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Zero emission energy plants

ZERO-EMISSION ENERGY PLANTS

Dr. Robert ‘Bob’ Wright

Senior Program Manager

Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels

Office of Fossil Energy

U. S. Department of Energy

Washington, DC

The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference

Global Energy Management Institute

University of Houston

Houston, Texas

18 November 2004


America depends on fossil energy

+39% (1.5% pa)

200298 Quads

Fossil fuels provide 87.2% of energy

Fossil fuels provide 85.6% of energy

America Depends on Fossil Energy

2025136 Quads

AEO 2004: Table A1

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Contaminant emissions down

Contaminant Emissions Down

U.S. Power Plants

Coal Use

Electricity

Generation

Index: 1970 = 1

Natural Gas Use

Nitrogen Oxides

Sulfur Dioxide

Particulate

Matter

Year

EPA, National Air Quality and Emissions Trends Report, 1999 (March 2001)

DOE, EIA Annual Energy Review

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Co 2 concentration on the rise

CO2 Concentration On The Rise

From ~280 ppm to 370 ppm over the last 100 years

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Co 2 from combustion in u s

Coal-Fired Power Plants Produce 1/3 of CO2

CO2 from Combustion in U. S.

Natural Gas

Petroleum

Coal

Relative Contribution

by Fuel Type

Tg CO2 Eq.

Residential

Industrial

Electric

U.S. Territories

Commercial

Transportation

Table 2-3, EPA 430-R-03-004, April 2003

Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks: 1990-2001

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


The case for hydrogen

Transportation

Biomass

Biomass

Biomass

Hydro

Hydro

Hydro

Wind

Wind

Wind

Solar

Solar

Solar

Industry

Nuclear

Nuclear

H2

Oil

Oil

n

o

i

Power

Generation

t

a

r

t

Coal

Coal

s

e

u

q

e

Natural

Natural

S

Gas

Gas

The Case for Hydrogen

Energy SecurityResponseDIVERSE DOMESTIC RESOURCES

Environment

ResponseZERO/NEAR ZERO GHGand other EMISSIONS

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Why hydrogen from coal

Why Hydrogen From Coal?

  • U.S. reserves are huge

    • 250 year supply

  • H2 can be produced cleanly

  • H2 from coal is economical

  • Carbon capture and storage addresses climate change

  • Diversifies the source of H2

  • Provides the bridge to production of H2 from renewable sources and nuclear

Fossil Energy Reserves1

Quads

1 -- Proved oil and gas reserves, and recoverable coal reserves

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Futuregen

FutureGen

  • Nearly $1 billion (U.S.) , 10-year demonstration project to create the world’s first coal-based, zero-emission electricity and hydrogen plant

    • Test new technologies

    • Nominal 275-MWe

    • 1 million tonnes CO2 per year

    • Sequester the CO2

    • Produce H2

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Platform for emerging technologies

Platform for Emerging Technologies

Fuel Cells

Carbon

Sequestration

FutureGen

System

Integration

Gasification with Cleanup and Separation

Optimized Turbines

H2 Production

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Traditional igcc

“Traditional” IGCC

Coal

Sulfur

Central Power

Gas Turbine Combined Cycle

Syngas

H2 / CO

Coal

Gasifier

Gas

Cleanup

O2

O2

Plant

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Igcc in futuregen

Sulfur

Coal

H2 / CO

Gas Cleanup

and

Separation

Central Power

H2 Turbine Combined Cycle

H2

Coal

Gasifier

Shift

H2 / CO2

O2

CO2

Transportation

Fuel Cells

IC Engine

O2

Plant

GeologicSequestration

Distributed Power

Fuel Cells

IGCC in FutureGen

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Co 2 storage

CO2 Storage

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Geo sequestration advantages

Geo-Sequestration Advantages

  • May be only option that removes enough carbon tostabilize CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere

  • Only approach that doesn’t require countries to overhaul their energy infrastructures—continue to use fossil fuels

  • May prove to be the lowestcost carbon managementoption

Carbon Management Paths

  • Switch to low- & no-carbon fuels

Renewables, Nuclear, Natural Gas

  • Increase energy efficiency

Demand Side & Supply Side

  • Sequester carbon

Terrestrial

Geologic

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Worldwide storage capacity

Worldwide Storage Capacity

200,000

Range of Potential Capacity

Capacity (Gtc)

6.5 Gtc

Deep

Ocean

Deep

Saline

Formations

Depleted

Oil & Gas

Reservoirs

Coal

Seams

Terrestrial

Annual

World

Emissions

Storage Options: IEA Technical Review (TR4), March 23, 2004 / Carbon Capture & Sequestration Program @MITWorld Emissions: / DOE-EIA, International Energy Outlook 2003, Table A10

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Adapting to climate change

Reference Case

Reduction incarbon intensity

(environmental incentives)

Creation of materially new energy sectors

(economic growth incentives)

Adapting to Climate Change

Emissions

Target

1990

2015

2040

2100

Chris Mottershead, British Petroleum

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Stabilization

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

Stabilization Wedges1 Wedge = 1 Gtc

Fossil Fuel Emissions(Gtc/yr)

Continued Fossil Fuel Emissions

2000

2010

2020

2030

2040

2050

Stabilization

  • Stabilization of atmospheric concentrations of CO2 in 2050 requires a new zero emissions energy sector almost equal in size to the current primary

S. Pacala, R. Socolow, Presentation, May 4, 2004

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


What is scale of 1 gtc wedge

What is Scale of 1 Gtc Wedge?

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


Thank you

Thank You

  • R. Patrich of SaskPower

    • “We are moving into a carbon-managed world, not a carbon constrained world.”

  • Web sites

    • www.fe.doe.gov

    • www.netl.doe.gov

    • www.netl.doe.gov/coalpower/sequestration

  • Email addresses

    • [email protected]

    • [email protected]

WRIGHT / Zero-Emission Energy Plants / The Energy Advancement Leadership Conference / Houston, Texas / 18 November 2004


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