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Perspectives from the SC AD for Nuclear physics. EIC Meeting Stony Brook June 24-27, 2014. Important Disclaimer. The following is just one person’s look into a (rather hazy) crystal ball, and any/all of what follows could be changed depending on any number of circumstances, e.g.

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Perspectives from the sc ad for nuclear physics

Perspectives from the SC AD for Nuclear physics

EIC Meeting

Stony Brook June 24-27, 2014

Important disclaimer
Important Disclaimer

The following is just one person’s look into a (rather hazy) crystal ball, and any/all of what follows could be changed depending on any number of circumstances, e.g.

community priorities

available resources

new science discoveries

new administration priorities,

etc., etc.

Jlab 12 gev fully operational fy2017 338m investment
JLab: 12 GeV Fully Operational FY2017, $338M Investment

Nuclear Structure

Hadrons from QGP


Forces & Symmetries

Accelerator S&T




of Hadrons

Theory and Computation

Quark Confinement

Jlab decadal science questions
JLab: Decadal Science Questions

  • What is the role of gluonic excitations in the spectroscopy of light mesons? Can these excitations elucidate the origin of quark confinement?

  • Where is the missing spin in the nucleon? Is there a significant contribution from valence quark orbital angular momentum?

  • Can we reveal a novel landscape of nucleon substructure through measurements of new multidimensional distribution functions?

  • What is the relation between short-range N-N correlations and the partonic structure of nuclei?

  • Can we discover evidence for physics beyond the standard model of particle physics?

There would appear to be a good 10 year program of compelling science to be done

At present atlas caribu at anl uniquely provides sc funded low energy research opportunities
At present, ATLAS/CARIBU at ANL Uniquely Provides SC funded Low Energy Research Opportunities

Longer term, ATLAS niche is as a unique, complementary Stable Beam Facility for research on Nuclear Structure & Nuclear Astrophysics

Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

FRIB will increase the number of isotopes with known properties from ~2,000 observed over the last century to ~5,000 and will provide world-leading capabilities for research on:

  • Nuclear Structure

    • The ultimate limits of existence for nuclei

    • Nuclei which have neutron skins

    • The synthesis of super heavy elements

  • Nuclear Astrophysics

    • The origin of the heavy elements and explosive nucleo-synthesis

    • Composition of neutron star crusts

  • Fundamental Symmetries

    • Tests of fundamental symmetries, Atomic EDMs, Weak Charge

    • This research will provide the basis for a model of nuclei and how they interact.

FRIB Site March 2014

FRIB Linear Accelerator

The coils of this high temperature superconducting (HTS) quadrupole exceeded the required currents at elevated temperatures, indicating additional operating current margin and more stability.

FRIB: 21st Century Science Questions

  • FRIB physics is at the core of nuclear science: “To understand, predict, and use”

  • FRIB provides access to a vast unexplored terrain in the chart of nuclides

Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

Ground breaking ceremony with participation by DOE officials and Senate and House representatives was held on March 17, 2014.

Continuing scientific discovery at the relativistic heavy ion collider
Continuing Scientific Discovery at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

Polarized Jet Target

12:00 o’clock



8:00 o’clock


4:00 o’clock


6:00 o’clock










For the hot QCD science and polarized proton science missions, no other facility worldwide, existing or planned, can rival RHIC in range and versatility.

Main remaining questions
Main Ion Collider Remaining Questions

  • What do we need to know about the initial state? Is it a weakly coupled color glass condensate? How does it thermalize?

  • What do the data tell us about the initial conditions for the hydro-dynamic expansion? Can we determine it unambiguously?

  • What is the smallest collision system that behaves collectively?

  • What does the QCD phase diagram look like? Does it contain a critical point in the HG-QGP transition region? Does the HG-QGP transition become a first-order phase transition for large μB?

  • What can jets and heavy flavors tell us about the structure of the strongly coupled QGP?

  • What do the quarkonium (and other) data tell us about quark deconfinement and hadronization?

  • Can we find unambiguous proof for chiral symmetry restoration?

Preparations for np stewarded neutrino less double beta decay experiments
Preparations for NP Stewarded Neutrino-less Ion Collider Double Beta Decay Experiments

R&D on one of several approaches by U.S.

scientists is ongoing at Lead, South Dakota

With techniques that use nuclear isotopes inside cryostats, often made of ultra-clean materials, scientists are “tooling up” to study whether neutrinos are their own anti-particle.

NSAC has been charged to identify the criteria for a next generation double beta decay experiment.

Recent progress on the Majorana Demonstrator 4800 feet below ground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF)

Inspection of copper being electroformed at the Temporary Clean Room in SURF

Neutrinoless double beta decay nsac charge
Neutrinoless Ion Collider Double Beta Decay NSAC Charge

Scientific Importance

Status of Ongoing and Planned Experiments

Nuclear theory
Nuclear Theory Ion Collider

Maintaining adequate support for a robust nuclear theory effort is essential to the productivity and vitality of nuclear science

  • The essential role of a strong nuclear theory effort goes without saying:

  • Poses scientific questions that lead to the construction of facilities

  • Helps make the case for, and guide the design of new facilities, their research programs and their strategic operations plan

  • Provides a framework for understanding measurements made at facilities

  • Topical Collaborations (fixed-term, multi-institution collaborations established to investigate a specific topic) appear to have been very successful and, resource permitting, the model will be continued

Nuclear theory computing will also likely be a discussion
Nuclear Theory Ion Collider Computing Will Also Likely be a Discussion

New GPU-based LQCD processor at TJNAF

How many different nuclei exist? 

NP researchers theorize the number to be ~7,000

Isotope program will continue
Isotope Program Will Continue Ion Collider

The mission of the DOE Isotope Program is threefold

Produce and/or distribute radioactive and stable isotopes that are in short supply, associated byproducts, surplus materials and related isotope services.

Maintain the infrastructure required to produce and supply isotope products and related services.

Conduct R&D on new and improved isotope production and processing techniques which can make available new isotopes for research and applications.

Produce isotopes that are in short supply only –

the Isotope Program does not compete with industry

One Year Ago Ion Collider

R&D Creates New Production Method for Actinium-225

  • A new isotope project at LANL shows promise for rapidly producing major quantities of a new cancer-treatment agent, actinium-225.

  • Using proton beams, LANL and BNL could match current annual worldwide production of the isotope in just a few days.

  • A collaboration among LANL, BNL, and ORNL is developing a plan for full-scale production and stable supply of Ac-225.

  • Ac-225 emits alpha radiation. Alpha particles are energetic enough to destroy cancer cells but are unlikely to move beyond a tightly controlled target region and destroy healthy cells. Alpha particles are stopped in their tracks by a layer of skin—or even an inch or two of air.




Defining the science long range plans
Defining the Science – Ion Collider Long Range Plans


  • The Long Range Plans have:

    • Identified the scientific opportunities

    • Recommended scientific priorities

    • Effectively defining the

    • field of Nuclear Physics

      for the Nation

      New LRP in 2007






  • Nation’s leadership role today

  • is largely a result of:

  • The responsible/visionary strategic planning

  • embodied in the NSAC Long Range Plans

  • Federal government’s decision to utilize the guidance

  • and provide the needed resources

1979 a long range plan for nuclear science
1979: A Long Range Plan for Nuclear Science Ion Collider

First Mention of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Machine; Not Yet a Recommendation

The major facility recommended by this plan turned out to be CEBAF

2007 lrp
2007 LRP Ion Collider

From Recommendation to Realization Takes Time Ion Collider

Time from First Strong Recommendation to Operating Facility

RHIC: 1983 to 2000 17 years

CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade 2002 to 2017 15 years

ISOL Facility/RIA/FRIB 1996 to 2021 25 years

CEBAF 1979 to 1996 17 years

There seems to be a constant of nature with respect to the timescale for realization of big initiatives

EIC at the moment has no status with respect to nuclear science community

priorities. The next LRP will be  2021

In addition to nuclear science priorities, there are other Office of Science priorities that will be in play

The other aspect what else is potentially in the sc queue
The Other Aspect: What else Ion Collider is potentially in the SC Queue?

All kinds of things, always (ITER, LBNE,

New Light Sources, New Leadership Computers, new Centers, new Hubs, ...

EIC will either be in the swim

Or not

To be in the swim at this point
To be in the swim at this point… Ion Collider

A very strong science case with broad appeal need to be clearly articulated to and bought into by the nuclear science community

(disclaimer, this is an observation, not an endorsement by the AD)

Eic a color dipole microscope
EIC: A color dipole microscope Ion Collider

Free color charges (e.g. quarks) do not exist, but color dipoles do! Virtual photons are an excellent source of color dipoles.


  • Two resolution scales:

  • momentum k (longitudinal)

  • virtuality Q (transverse)

  • ⇒ More powerful than an optical microscope!

  • γ*

HERA was the 1st

generation color

dipole microscope,

with limited intensity

and no polarization.

EIC will be a 2nd

generation color

dipole microscope,

>100-fold intensity

and polarization!

Color dipoles

“see” gluons

The eic a qcd laboratory

The EIC: A QCD Laboratory

High density phase of

cold gluon matter

Gluon structure of the proton:

How is the proton’s mass generated and what carries its spin?

  • Today’s proton

  • Proton @ EIC

The other eic thrust
The other EIC Thrust Ion Collider

Projected sensitivity in 20051
Projected Sensitivity in 2005 Ion Collider

A particular challenge for this aspect will be making the scientific challenges “fresh” and strongly motivated for a


Nuclear Physics Ion Collider FY 2015 President’s Request – By Function

~69% of the FY 2015 NP budget supports operations or construction of facilities

The percentage devoted to major projects is almost 19% in FY 2015

FY 2015 President’s Request

Total = $593.6M

Outlook Ion Collider

  • The future of nuclear science in the United States continues to be rich with science opportunities.

  • The United States will continue to provide resources for and to expect:

  • U.S. world leadership in discovery science illuminating the properties of nuclear matter in all of its manifestations.

  • Tools necessary for scientific and technical advances which will lead to new knowledge, new competencies, and groundbreaking innovation and applications.

  • Strategic investments in tools and research to provide the U.S. with premier research capabilities in the world.

Nuclear Science will continue to be an important part of the

U.S. science investment strategy to create new knowledge and technology innovation supporting U.S. security and competitiveness