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The use of a computerized automated feedback system. Trevor Barker Dept. Computer Science. Contents. Feedback considerations Approaches to feedback Automated feedback Previous research Examples Discussion. Chickering and Gamson’s Seven Principles: Good practice in higher education….

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the use of a computerized automated feedback system

The use of a computerized automated feedback system

Trevor Barker

Dept. Computer Science

  • Feedback considerations
  • Approaches to feedback
  • Automated feedback
    • Previous research
  • Examples
  • Discussion
chickering and gamson s seven principles good practice in higher education
Chickering and Gamson’s Seven Principles: Good practice in higher education…
  • Encourages contact between students and lecturers
  • Develops reciprocity and cooperation among students
  • Encourages active learning
  • Gives prompt feedback
  • Emphasises time on task
  • Communicates high expectations
  • Respects diverse talents and ways of learning
gives prompt feedback
Gives prompt feedback
  • Feedback must be prompt but it must also be good i.e.
    • Appropriate
    • Useful
    • Accurate
    • Individual
    • Fast
    • Facilitate feed forward
reasons for automated approaches to testing and learning
Reasons for automated approaches to testing and learning
  • Vast investment in infrastructure
  • Availability of MLE systems such as UH Studynet
  • Changes in nature of Higher Education
  • Online and distance education
  • Increase in student numbers (SSR)
  • Increasing pressures on time and cost
previous research computer adaptive test
Previous researchComputer-Adaptive Test
  • Based on Item Response Theory (IRT)
  • If a student answers a question correctly, the estimate of his/her ability is raised and a more difficult question is presented
  • If a student answers a question incorrectly, the estimate of his/her ability is lowered and an easier question follows
previous research computer adaptive testing
Previous researchComputer Adaptive Testing
  • Computer-Based Tests (CBTs) mimic aspects of a paper-and-pencil test
    • Accuracy and speed of marking
    • Predefined set of questions presented to all participants and thus questions are not tailored for each individual student
  • Computer-Adaptive Tests (CATs) mimic aspects of an oral interview
    • Accuracy and speed of marking
    • Questions are dynamically selected according to student performance
benefits of the adaptive approach
Benefits of the adaptive approach
  • Questions that are too easy or too difficult are likely to
    • Be de-motivating
    • Provide little or no valuable information about student knowledge
  • The CAT level identifies a unique boundary between what the student knows and what he or she does not know
providing individual feedback based on cat
Providing individual feedback based on CAT.
  • An application of the CAT approach is in the provision of automated individual feedback
  • This approach has been in operation for several years at the University of Hertfordshire in two BSc. Computer Science modules
  • Recently this model has been extended to make it easier to use on other modules
about the feedback
About the Feedback
  • Learners received feedback on:
    • Overall proficiency level;
    • Performance in each topic;
    • Recommended topics for revision
    • Cognitive level (Bloom)
  • Feedback on assessment performance was initially made available to learners via a web-based application
results tutors opinions
Results: tutors’ opinions
  • Tutors consider that the fast feedback provided by a CAT is as good as or better than that currently provided in many cases.
  • The link to Bloom’s levels was positive
  • The approach was considered to be efficient, possibly freeing time for other activities
  • CAT considered to be best as a formative tool, rather than for summative assessment
  • Some tutors were concerned that the approach was ‘impersonal’
  • There is a need for a monitoring role for tutors, for practical and ethical reasons
recent research
Recent research
  • The CAT automated feedback system has been extended from objective testing to include written and practical tests
  • Testing and evaluation of the new system with approximately
    • 350 first yearBSc (1 final practical test),
    • 120 second year BSc(2 written and practical tests) and
    • 80 final year BSc (2 final practical tests)
    • 70 MSc students ( 2 written tests)
added features
Added features
  • Markers able to comment on the completeness of the hand-in
    • In this version, the hand-in information is presented to the marker who may then make additional comments on the completeness or nature of the hand-in.
  • Feedback was determined by the system based on the mark awarded in each section of a question, reading it from the database file for the assignment.
  • After all the question sections had been marked, the system presented a final summary screen so that the marker could check that the marks had been awarded accurately.
  • The marker can add additional feedback at the end
  • Student attitude to feedback was good irrespective of score on test
    • Useful
    • Fair
    • Convenient
    • Quantity
    • Quality
  • Internal moderator happy with feedback
  • Suggestions from moderator were included in the next prototype
  • Easy to set up feedback database automatically
  • Tutors can modify and add to feedback for each question
  • Additions to feedback saved for re-use later
in summary
In summary
  • Larger class sizes, greater use of online and distance assessment ensures that feedback is often too slow and too general to be of any real use to learners.
  • Personalised automated feedback is likely to become increasingly important in the future. It is being used in four modules currently at UH.
  • Learners and tutors accept the need for automated feedback and most appreciate the benefits of such systems.
  • The system is being further developed to make it simpler for general use