Announcements Midterm Monday! Bring calculator, protractor, ruler, stereonet and tracing paper Talk This Thurs. 4 pm, Rm. Haury Bldg. Rm 216, "The role of orogen-parallel extension during the India-Asia collision", write 1 paragraph summary (+1% extra credit).
AnnouncementsMidterm Monday!Bring calculator, protractor, ruler, stereonet and tracing paperTalk This Thurs. 4 pm, Rm. Haury Bldg. Rm 216, "The role of orogen-parallel extension during the India-Asia collision", write 1 paragraph summary (+1% extra credit)
Brittle fault rocks and kinematic indicators(D&R: 280-286; 297-300)
1. Descriptive terminology2. Determining direction of slip3. Determine sense-of-shear
Breccias: fault rocks composed of angular fragments of wall rock set in a finer-grained matrix of crushed wall rock; classified based on clast size
megabreccia! (well, almost)
gouge: very fine-grained; clayey
cataclasite: very fine-grained strongly indurated fault rock (white in photo)
concept of fault zone
cataclasite: commonly forms "ledges"
pseudotachylite: dark, very fine-grained and generally glassy fault rock; thought to represent rapidly chilled rock melt, with melting of rock due to shear heating during an earthquake event- WOW!
the glassy surface is the "generation" surface and the black veins are "injection veins"
Determining kinematics from fault fabrics1st step: figure out direction of slip2nd step: figure out sense-of-shear- this requires looking at fabrics that are oriented perpendicular to slip direction
slickensides: polished shiny fault surfaces due to abrasive actionslickenlines/striations: scratches
chatter marks: step-like features oriented perpendicular to striations
Crystal fiber lineations: produced by preferred directional growth of minerals during faulting in direction of movement
R: synthetic Riedel shearR': antithetic Riedel shearP: synthetic shear, subordinate to R and R' or absent
Where are R and R' shears?What is the sense-of-shear?Explain why R' shears are associated with veins
gash fractures: form perpendicular to s3
crystal fiber lineations