Biotechnology
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 20

Biotechnology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 53 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Biotechnology. SB2.f – Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine and agriculture. Vocabulary. Restriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences

Download Presentation

Biotechnology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Biotechnology

Biotechnology

SB2.f – Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine and agriculture.


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

  • Restriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences

  • DNA fingerprint – unique sequence of DNA base pairs that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level

  • Clone – genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism


Vocabulary1

Vocabulary

  • Genetic engineering–process of changing an organism’s DNAto give the organism newtraits

  • Recombinant DNA – genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organism or species

  • Plasmid – circular piece of genetic material found in bacteria that can replicate separately from the DNA of the main chromosome


Vocabulary2

Vocabulary

  • Transgenic – organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species

  • Gene knockout – genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organism’s genes are prevented from being expressed

  • Gene sequencing - process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes


Vocabulary3

Vocabulary

  • Human Genome Project – project whose goal is to map, sequence, and identify all of the genes in the human genome

  • Genetic screening – process of testing DNA to determine the chance a person has, or might pass on, a genetic disorder

  • Gene Therapy – procedure to treat a disease in which a defective or missing gene is replaced or a new gene is inserted into a patient’s genome


Manipulating dna

Manipulating DNA

  • Scientists use several techniques to manipulate DNA.

    • Chemicals, computers, and bacteria are used to work with DNA.

    • Scientists use these tools in geneticsresearch and biotechnology.


Manipulating dna1

Manipulating DNA

Restriction enzymes cut DNA.

  • Restriction enzymes act as “molecular scissors.”

    • come from various types of bacteria

    • allow scientists to more easily study and manipulate genes

    • cut DNAat a specific nucleotide sequence called a restriction site


Manipulating dna2

Manipulating DNA

Restriction enzymes cut DNA.

  • Different restriction enzymes cut DNA in different ways.

    • each enzyme has a different restriction site

    • some cut straight across and leave “blunt ends”

    • some make staggered cuts and leave “stickyends”


Manipulating dna3

Manipulating DNA


Manipulating dna4

Manipulating DNA

Restriction maps show the lengths of DNA fragments.

  • Gel electrophoresisis used to separate DNA fragments by size.

    • A DNA sample is cut with restriction enzymes.

    • Electrical current pulls DNA fragments through a gel.

    • Smaller fragments move faster and travel farther than larger fragments.

    • Fragments of different sizes appear as bands on the gel.


Manipulating dna5

Manipulating DNA


Manipulating dna6

Manipulating DNA

Restriction maps show the lengths of DNA fragments.

  • A restriction map shows the lengths of DNA fragments between restriction sites.

    • only indicate size, not DNA sequence

    • useful in genetic engineering

    • used to study mutations


Dna fingerprinting

DNA Fingerprinting

A DNA fingerprint is a type of restriction map.

  • DNA fingerprints are based on parts of an individual’s DNA that can by used for identification.

    • based on noncoding regions of DNA

    • noncoding regions have repeating DNA sequences

    • number of repeats differsbetween people

    • banding pattern on a gel is a DNA fingerprint


Dna fingerprinting1

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is used for identification.

  • DNA fingerprinting depends on the probability of a match.

    • Many people have the same number of repeats in a certain region of DNA.

    • The probability that two people share identical numbers of repeats in several locations is very small.


Dna fingerprinting2

DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is used for identification.

  • DNA fingerprinting is used in several ways.

    • evidence in criminal cases

    • paternity tests

    • immigration requests studying biodiversity

    • tracking genetically modified crops


Genomics bioinformatics

Genomics & Bioinformatics

Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes.

  • Genomics is the study of genomes.

    • can include the sequencing of the genome

    • comparisons of genomes within and across species


Genomics bioinformatics1

Genomics & Bioinformatics

Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes.

  • Gene sequencing is determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes or in genomes.

  • The genomes of several different organisms have been sequenced.

  • The Human Genome Projecthas sequenced all of the DNA base pairs of human chromosomes.

    • analyzed DNA from a few people

    • still working to identify and map human genes


Genetic screening therapy

Genetic Screening & Therapy

Genetic screening can detect genetic disorders.

  • Genetic screening involves the testing of DNA.

    • determines risk of having or passing on a genetic disorder

    • used to detect specific genes or proteins

    • can detect some genes related to an increased risk of cancer

    • can detect some genes known to cause genetic disorders


Genetic screening therapy1

Genetic Screening & Therapy

Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes.

  • Gene therapy replaces defective or missing genes, or adds new genes, to treat a disease.

  • Several experimental techniques are used for gene therapy.

    • genetically engineered viruses used to “infect” a patient’s cells

    • insert gene to stimulate immune system to attack cancer cells

    • insert “suicide” genes into cancer cells that activate a drug


Genetic screening therapy2

Genetic Screening & Therapy

Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes.

  • Gene therapy has many technical challenges.

    • inserting gene into correct cells

    • controlling gene expression

    • determining effect on other genes


  • Login