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Biotechnology. SB2.f – Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine and agriculture. Vocabulary. Restriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences

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biotechnology

Biotechnology

SB2.f – Examine the use of DNA technology in forensics, medicine and agriculture.

vocabulary
Vocabulary
  • Restriction enzyme – enzyme that cuts DNA molecules at specific nucleotide sequences
  • DNA fingerprint – unique sequence of DNA base pairs that can be used to identify a person at the molecular level
  • Clone – genetically identical copy of a single gene or an entire organism
vocabulary1
Vocabulary
  • Genetic engineering–process of changing an organism’s DNAto give the organism newtraits
  • Recombinant DNA – genetically engineered DNA that contains genes from more than one organism or species
  • Plasmid – circular piece of genetic material found in bacteria that can replicate separately from the DNA of the main chromosome
vocabulary2
Vocabulary
  • Transgenic – organism whose genome has been altered to contain one or more genes from another organism or species
  • Gene knockout – genetic manipulation in which one or more of an organism’s genes are prevented from being expressed
  • Gene sequencing - process of determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes and genomes
vocabulary3
Vocabulary
  • Human Genome Project – project whose goal is to map, sequence, and identify all of the genes in the human genome
  • Genetic screening – process of testing DNA to determine the chance a person has, or might pass on, a genetic disorder
  • Gene Therapy – procedure to treat a disease in which a defective or missing gene is replaced or a new gene is inserted into a patient’s genome
manipulating dna
Manipulating DNA
  • Scientists use several techniques to manipulate DNA.
    • Chemicals, computers, and bacteria are used to work with DNA.
    • Scientists use these tools in geneticsresearch and biotechnology.
manipulating dna1
Manipulating DNA

Restriction enzymes cut DNA.

  • Restriction enzymes act as “molecular scissors.”
    • come from various types of bacteria
    • allow scientists to more easily study and manipulate genes
    • cut DNAat a specific nucleotide sequence called a restriction site
manipulating dna2
Manipulating DNA

Restriction enzymes cut DNA.

  • Different restriction enzymes cut DNA in different ways.
    • each enzyme has a different restriction site
    • some cut straight across and leave “blunt ends”
    • some make staggered cuts and leave “stickyends”
manipulating dna4
Manipulating DNA

Restriction maps show the lengths of DNA fragments.

  • Gel electrophoresisis used to separate DNA fragments by size.
    • A DNA sample is cut with restriction enzymes.
    • Electrical current pulls DNA fragments through a gel.
    • Smaller fragments move faster and travel farther than larger fragments.
    • Fragments of different sizes appear as bands on the gel.
manipulating dna6
Manipulating DNA

Restriction maps show the lengths of DNA fragments.

  • A restriction map shows the lengths of DNA fragments between restriction sites.
    • only indicate size, not DNA sequence
    • useful in genetic engineering
    • used to study mutations
dna fingerprinting
DNA Fingerprinting

A DNA fingerprint is a type of restriction map.

  • DNA fingerprints are based on parts of an individual’s DNA that can by used for identification.
    • based on noncoding regions of DNA
    • noncoding regions have repeating DNA sequences
    • number of repeats differsbetween people
    • banding pattern on a gel is a DNA fingerprint
dna fingerprinting1
DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is used for identification.

  • DNA fingerprinting depends on the probability of a match.
    • Many people have the same number of repeats in a certain region of DNA.
    • The probability that two people share identical numbers of repeats in several locations is very small.
dna fingerprinting2
DNA Fingerprinting

DNA fingerprinting is used for identification.

  • DNA fingerprinting is used in several ways.
    • evidence in criminal cases
    • paternity tests
    • immigration requests studying biodiversity
    • tracking genetically modified crops
genomics bioinformatics
Genomics & Bioinformatics

Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes.

  • Genomics is the study of genomes.
    • can include the sequencing of the genome
    • comparisons of genomes within and across species
genomics bioinformatics1
Genomics & Bioinformatics

Genomics involves the study of genes, gene functions, and entire genomes.

  • Gene sequencing is determining the order of DNA nucleotides in genes or in genomes.
  • The genomes of several different organisms have been sequenced.
  • The Human Genome Projecthas sequenced all of the DNA base pairs of human chromosomes.
    • analyzed DNA from a few people
    • still working to identify and map human genes
genetic screening therapy
Genetic Screening & Therapy

Genetic screening can detect genetic disorders.

  • Genetic screening involves the testing of DNA.
    • determines risk of having or passing on a genetic disorder
    • used to detect specific genes or proteins
    • can detect some genes related to an increased risk of cancer
    • can detect some genes known to cause genetic disorders
genetic screening therapy1
Genetic Screening & Therapy

Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes.

  • Gene therapy replaces defective or missing genes, or adds new genes, to treat a disease.
  • Several experimental techniques are used for gene therapy.
    • genetically engineered viruses used to “infect” a patient’s cells
    • insert gene to stimulate immune system to attack cancer cells
    • insert “suicide” genes into cancer cells that activate a drug
genetic screening therapy2
Genetic Screening & Therapy

Gene therapy is the replacement of faulty genes.

  • Gene therapy has many technical challenges.
    • inserting gene into correct cells
    • controlling gene expression
    • determining effect on other genes
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