Biotechnology. Reading quiz. Identify the term that best represents each description 1. When a bacteria is not affected by chemicals that interfere with its life processes 2. A rod shaped bacterial cell 3. Chemicals that interfere with bacteria’s life processes
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
- Human tissues grown in animal donors
You have been born in it and will live during it
You must be informed in order to make
And… you deserve to be qualified to work in an exciting field - as scientists, technicians, receptionists, business execs, and artists
CELL WALLS: Scientists use Gram staining to tell cell wall type apart.
If the Gram testing is positive, then the bacteria has thick peptidoglycan walls
If the Gram testing is negative, the bacteria has thin walls inside an outer lipid layers.
Identifies prokaryotes by how they obtain energy.
Chemoheterotrophs- consume organic molecules for energy and a supply of carbon.
Photoheterotrophs- use photosynthesis; need organic compound like a carbon source.
Photoautotrophs- use photosynthesis EX: cyanobacteria-
Chemoautotrophs- make organic carbon molecules from CO2. They obtain energy directly from chemical reactions.
Releasing energy- by fermentation, cellular respiration, or both
Obligate aerobes- constantly need oxygen
Obligate anaerobes- live without oxgen
Facultative anaerobes- live with/without oxgen EX: E. coli
Bacteria can divide at high speeds, (every 20 min. )
Binary Fission- (asexual).
Conjugation- Bacteria exchange genetic info by forming a bridge between two of them. Different genes are transferred to each other to increase genetic diversity in bacteria populations.
Transformation-To be discussed later
Used for accurately measuring very small amounts of fluids of cell walls, movement, and how they obtain energy.
Used in almost all biotechnology to measure
1 μL = .001 mL = .000001 L = 1 x 10^-6 L
2 mL = μ L = LMicropipets
1. Circular piece of DNA that replicates independently of the chromosome(s)
2. Protein that can “cut” DNA at precise spots
3. Purposeful manipulation of DNA
4. Overhanging sequence of bases left after DNA is “cut”
5. Substance that can be used to identify cells with our gene of interest
Plasmid (vector okay)
Antibiotic (tetracycline okay)1 point each
Genetic engineering defined: the chromosome(s)
Recombination of genetic information by
transferring genetic information from one organism
to another, usually by way of a recombinant “vector”
At a minimum from different species --
from one bacterial species to another...
Or… as dramatic as DNA from different kingdoms!
Uses in basic research the chromosome(s)
- to produce multiple copies of DNA
- to produce multiple copies of a
- monitor spread of virus
infecting tobacco plants
Restriction Enzymes the chromosome(s)
Protein molecules used to cut DNA
Protein molecules used to put together DNA
Small DNA molecules used to put new genes into bacteria
Used to put new genes into other living thingsTools to accomplish genetic engineering
How do you get pGLO into E. Coli? the chromosome(s)
How do you grow transformed E. Coli?
How do you identify transformed cells?
Spread E. Coli on petri dish with agar and incubate
GFP proteinTransformation procedure
A plasmid used as a vector must have the chromosome(s)
Origin of plasmid replication
a. An origin of replication
b. A gene conferring resistance to an antibiotic.
In addition, pGLO contains
c. The Green Fluorescent Protein - the protein of interest
d. An ON/OFF switch that controls the synthesis of GFP by the presence or absence of the sugar, arabinose.
Beta-lactamase to break down ampicillin
Green Fluorescent Protein
Used for identification/DNA fingerprinting, researching genes, etc..Gel Boxes
H2O + NaCl + phenol red + TAE buffer
DNA GEL etc..
libproto etc..RFLP (DNA FINGERPRINTING) Protocol