Biotechnology. Reading quiz. Identify the term that best represents each description 1. When a bacteria is not affected by chemicals that interfere with its life processes 2. A rod shaped bacterial cell 3. Chemicals that interfere with bacteria’s life processes
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Identification (“DNA fingerprinting”)
- Human tissues grown in animal donors
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CELL WALLS: Scientists use Gram staining to tell cell wall type apart.
If the Gram testing is positive, then the bacteria has thick peptidoglycan walls
If the Gram testing is negative, the bacteria has thin walls inside an outer lipid layers.
Identifies prokaryotes by how they obtain energy.
Chemoheterotrophs- consume organic molecules for energy and a supply of carbon.
Photoheterotrophs- use photosynthesis; need organic compound like a carbon source.
Photoautotrophs- use photosynthesis EX: cyanobacteria-
Chemoautotrophs- make organic carbon molecules from CO2. They obtain energy directly from chemical reactions.
Releasing energy- by fermentation, cellular respiration, or both
Obligate aerobes- constantly need oxygen
Obligate anaerobes- live without oxgen
Facultative anaerobes- live with/without oxgen EX: E. coli
Bacteria can divide at high speeds, (every 20 min. )
Binary Fission- (asexual).
Conjugation- Bacteria exchange genetic info by forming a bridge between two of them. Different genes are transferred to each other to increase genetic diversity in bacteria populations.
Transformation-To be discussed later
Used for accurately measuring very small amounts of fluids
Used in almost all biotechnology to measure
1 μL = .001 mL = .000001 L = 1 x 10^-6 L
2 mL = μ L = L
1. Circular piece of DNA that replicates independently of the chromosome(s)
2. Protein that can “cut” DNA at precise spots
3. Purposeful manipulation of DNA
4. Overhanging sequence of bases left after DNA is “cut”
5. Substance that can be used to identify cells with our gene of interest
Plasmid (vector okay)
Antibiotic (tetracycline okay)
Genetic engineering defined:
Recombination of genetic information by
transferring genetic information from one organism
to another, usually by way of a recombinant “vector”
At a minimum from different species --
from one bacterial species to another...
Or… as dramatic as DNA from different kingdoms!
Uses in basic research
- to produce multiple copies of DNA
- to produce multiple copies of a
- monitor spread of virus
infecting tobacco plants
Protein molecules used to cut DNA
Protein molecules used to put together DNA
Small DNA molecules used to put new genes into bacteria
Used to put new genes into other living things
How do you get pGLO into E. Coli?
How do you grow transformed E. Coli?
How do you identify transformed cells?
Spread E. Coli on petri dish with agar and incubate
A plasmid used as a vector must have
Origin of plasmid replication
a. An origin of replication
b. A gene conferring resistance to an antibiotic.
In addition, pGLO contains
c. The Green Fluorescent Protein - the protein of interest
d. An ON/OFF switch that controls the synthesis of GFP by the presence or absence of the sugar, arabinose.
Beta-lactamase to break down ampicillin
Green Fluorescent Protein
Used to separate chemicals like DNA based on size, charge, etc..
Used for identification/DNA fingerprinting, researching genes, etc..
Note bubbles and swirls of changing pH
H2O + NaCl + phenol red + TAE buffer