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Progressivism and War. Woodrow Wilson. Background: PhD in Political Science Professor at Princeton, later president Governor of New Jersey, 1910 -1912; nominated for president to remove him from NJ. 1912 Election. Candidates: Taft Wilson TR Debs

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Progressivism and War

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Progressivism and War


Woodrow Wilson

Background:

PhD in Political Science

Professor at Princeton, later president

Governor of New Jersey, 1910 -1912; nominated for president to remove him from NJ


1912 Election

Candidates:

Taft Wilson TR Debs

Main issue: progressive reforms and “dollar diplomacy”


1912 Election

TR and the Progressive Party

TR wants to run again, denied by Republicans; forms 3rd party

Nicknamed the “Bull Moose Party”

Platform called the “New Nationalism

Called for further reforms than when president and involvement in world affairs


1912 Election

Events:

TR shot during campaign, continued anyway

Vote divided between four candidates, Wilson wins Electoral College


The Wilson Administration

The “Triple Wall of Privilege”

the tariff: pledged to lower it, eventually lowered through the Underwood Tariff; also enacted the income tax (16th Amendment)


The Wilson Administration

The “Triple Wall of Privilege:

the banks: after death of Morgan in 1913, the Federal Reserve was created; regulated $$ supply and interest rates


The Wilson Administration

The “Triple Wall of Privilege:

the trusts: similar opinion as Taft, saw trusts as bad for the economy; created the Federal Trade Commission which regulates business

Also limits on child labor


The Clayton Anti-Trust Act

Also passed Clayton Anti-Trust Act which strengthened the govt. in dealing with trusts

Also allowed for unions to be recognized and to “bargain collectively” for first time; called by Gompers as the “Magna Carta” of Labor


Limits of Progressivism

Race relations left out of reforms; black Americans see little progress during the era

Why?


Wilson’s Foreign Policy

Campaigned against Dollar Diplomacy; called for “moral diplomacy”; pulled troops out of Haiti and Dominican Republic


Problems With Mexico

Mexican Revolution: 1910 – 1919

MX controlled by dictator Porfirio Diaz, revolt led by Emilio Zapata and Francisco Madero

Revolt succeeds and Madero new pres. of MX


Problems With Mexico

Madero overthrown and executed by Valeriano Huerta in 1913

Wilson refuses to recognize new leader of MX, begins to secretly support rival Venustiano Carranza

Huerta began to threaten American assets and people

Huerta

Carranza


US in Mexico

Wilson vs. Huerta; Huerta supported by business interests but not by US government

Sent navy to patrol Mexican coast to “protect” US citizens

April, 1914: nine sailors captured entering “restricted zone” in Tampico, MX

Wilson sends bombs Vera Cruz in May, starting anti-American riots

Huerta threatens American interests in MX

US in Mexico


War with Mexico close; both armies prepare

US navy blockades Mexican ports

Latin American countries move to intercede between US and MX

US in Mexico


The “ABC” Powers

The “ABC” Powers (Argentina, Brazil, and Chile) mediate between US and MX in Niagara Falls, NY (July, 1914)

During conference, Huerta

overthrown by Carranza

Assisted by Pancho Villa


Francisco “Pancho” Villa

Carranza’s military leader, armed and equipped by US Army to fight Huerta

Former bandit leader

Villa with American general John “Black Jack Pershing


US vs. Villa

Wilson promises support, recognition if Carranza removes Villa from command

Villa vows revenge, begins raids on American holdings in Mexico

Raids Columbus, NM;

Kills 18 Americans

(July, 1916)


US vs. Villa

Wilson sends Pershing into MX to capture Villa, despite MX protests

Villa evades US for over a year

Pershing returns to US to lead US Army in WW I

Villa never captured; rumors?


Triple Alliance:

Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary

Italy changes sides, replaced by Ottoman Empire (Turkey)

Causes of World War I: Alliance System in Europe


Triple Entente:

Britain, France, and Russia

Called the Allies, joined by US eventually

Both alliances had secret agreements to go to each other’s defense if attacked

Neither side knew how strong the alliances were for the other side

Causes of World War I: Alliance System in Europe


Causes of World War One: Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany

Aggressive, vain, nationalist

Sought “Germany’s place in the

sun” by expanding empire

Conflicts with Britain


Causes of World War One: Expanding Empires

Germany and Britain global competition


Causes of World War One: the British-German Arms Race

Britain and Germany created huge navies of advanced ships (the “dreadnoughts”)

Germany, Russia, and France increased size of armies

British dreadnought

German dreadnought


Causes of World War One: a Weakening Austro-Hungarian Empire

Made up of numerous nationalities and language groups; many wanted self-rule (“autonomy”)

Most aggressive nation:

Serbia; wanted to self-govern

Home to terrorist groups

The Black Hand


Archduke Ferdinand, heir to A-H throne, assassinated by Serbian terrorist Gavrilo Princip, for Serbian independence

June 28th, 1914


The Beginning of WW I

Because of the alliance system:

A-H declares war on Serbia

Russia declares on A-H

Germany declares war on Russia

France and Britain declare war on Germany


America and WW I: 1914

Wilson declares US neutral

Most Americans opposed entry

American businesses sold to both Allies and Central Powers

Some Americans supported Germany

Irish-American troops for the Central Powers


US to Drifts Into War

Reasons America began to support the Allies:

1914 invasion of Belgium by CP; treated harshly by Germans

Americans respond with Belgian Relief Fund; led by Herbert Hoover


US to Drifts Into War

British propaganda affects Americans’ view of Germans and the war

New use of newsreels/movies


The Lusitania

British passenger ship, carrying Americans and weapons and ammunition

Germans give warning in NY papers; U-boats sink ship off the coast of Ireland, killing 127 Americans


Wilson threatens war; Germans “apologize”, promises not sink ships without warning (the “Sussex Pledge”)

Sinking of ships continues


1916 Election

Wilson vs. Charles Evans Hughes

Main issue: US in the war or not

“He Kept Us Out of War”


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