Between the wars
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Between the Wars. Chapters 17 & 18. “Between the Wars” Outline. Economic Concerns Cultural and Intellectual Trends Uneasy Peace The Great Depression Rise of Dictatorial Regimes Italy Russia Germany Nationalism Middle East Africa and Asia China Latin America.

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Between the Wars

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Between the wars

Between the Wars

Chapters 17 & 18


Between the wars outline

“Between the Wars” Outline

  • Economic Concerns

    • Cultural and Intellectual Trends

    • Uneasy Peace

    • The Great Depression

  • Rise of Dictatorial Regimes

    • Italy

    • Russia

    • Germany

  • Nationalism

    • Middle East

    • Africa and Asia

    • China

    • Latin America


Cultural and intellectual trends

Cultural and Intellectual Trends

  • The “Roaring Twenties”

    • Radio, movies, music, art, and literature dominate America and Europe

    • Odd activities abound in U.S.

    • Living on credit, or money that would have to be paid back later

  • Science

    • Physics take the forefront

      • “Heroic Age of Physics”

    • Werner Heisenberg suggested that physics could not answer all questions – uncertainty principle

    • Scientists like Albert Einstein and Ernest Rutherford encourage interest in the field


Uneasy peace in europe creates crisis

Uneasy Peace in Europe Creates Crisis

  • No U.S. means weak League of Nations

  • French demands of Germany

    • Upset with lack of payment, French occupy industrial area of Ruhr Valley in Germany

    • Plan to collect by operating and using mines and factories

  • German inflation

    • Germany tried to finance salaries and reparations by printing money

    • Dawes Plan – US gives Germany $2.5 Billion in loans, Germany pays Allies $2.0 Billion owed, Allies pay US $2.6 Billion owed

      • Allows U.S. investors to get into Europe

  • Treaty of Locarno

    • Guaranteed Germany’s new borders (forfeited lands)

    • Seen as declaration of peace…FOREVER

  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    • 63 nations sign, bans war

    • Nations still did not reduce military forces


The great depression

The Great Depression

  • Two causes

    • Individual nations’ economies failing

    • Stock market crash in US (October 29, 1929)

      • American investments in Europe go under

  • 25% of British, 40% of Germans, 22% of Americans unemployed

  • Responses

    • Increased gov’t presence in economy

    • Renewed interest in Marxist beliefs

  • World safe for democracy?

    • US, France, Germany, Great Britain primary democratic nations

    • Collective bargaining, or deals between employers and employees prevented Marxist resentment

    • Deficit spending, or spending money the nations didn’t have, still continued


Italy and mussolini

Italy and Mussolini

  • Benito Mussolini began his career as a Socialist

  • Created FasciodiCombattimento, or the League of Combat

    • Term Fascism derived from this – strong central government, glorification of state, controlled by dictator

  • Mussolini takes advantage of financial crisis in Europe

    • People fear Communist takeover similar to Russia

  • 1920 – Uses “Blackshirts” to squash Socialist groups

  • 1922 – Began to demand land for Italy, push Socialist groups further away from country

    • Gains support

  • 1922 – Threatens to march on Rome, is given position of Prime Minister


The fascist italian state

The Fascist Italian State

  • Totalitarian – Aimed to control all aspects of citizen’s lives

  • New laws from PM Mussolini:

    • PM made head of gov’t

    • Gov’t could suspend any publications criticizing it or the Catholic Church

    • Police could jail anyone

  • By 1926, Mussolini has complete control

    • Known as Il Duce or “The Leader”

  • Propaganda, youth groups, religion all used to maintain authority

    • Agreement with Pope to encourage Italians to support the regime


Russia after revolution

Russia After Revolution

  • Bad economy, food shortages, and industrial collapse caused Lenin to lose luster

  • 1921 – Brought back Capitalism disguised as the New Economic Policy

    • Peasants could sell produce openly

    • Small retail stores could be privately owned

  • NEP was only designed to be a short-term answer, but Lenin died in 1924

  • Who would take control?

    • Politburo, or the policy-making body of the Communist Party, clashes over question


Rise of stalin

Rise of Stalin

  • Politburo divided over future of Russia

    • End the NEP?

    • Worldwide Communist revolution?

    • Focus only on Russia?

  • Two big opponents

    • Leon Trotsky

    • Joseph Stalin

  • Stalin wins out because of job position

    • Began to remove old Bolshevik people from power, replacing them with his people

  • By 1929, Stalin establishes a powerful dictatorship in Russia


Russia under stalin

Russia Under Stalin

  • 1928 – Ends NEP, begins Five-Year Plans

    • Russia would become industrial overnight

    • Collectivization, or elimination, of farms

    • Focus on jobs still left living conditions in question…many had work, but poor homes

  • Resistance?

    • Millions fought back…especially peasant farmers, old Bolsheviks

    • If you resisted, you were sent to forced labor camps

    • Around 20 million political enemies and resistors were killed


Other authoritarian states

Other Authoritarian States

  • Eastern Europe

    • Nations forged from Russia after WWI

    • Still heavily influenced by Russians, weak when beginning to start up

    • Only Czechoslovakia remained democratic

  • Spain

    • Civil War broke out in 1936

    • Republicans aided by Soviet Union, Mexico, and France

    • Nationalists aided by Portugal, Germany and Italy

      • Take Madrid and win war in 1939


Exit slip

Exit Slip

  • 3 new things you learned

  • 2 things you found interesting

  • 1 thing you still have a question about


Photo analysis

Photo Analysis

  • What do you think is going on in the picture?

  • List 3 significant things you see.


Germany and hitler

Germany and Hitler

  • Adolf Hitler

    • Born in Austria-Hungary in 1899

    • Failed artist, was homeless and poor before the war

    • Served 4 years on Western Front during WWI

      • Decorated soldier praised by superiors

    • After the war, was an undercover agent assigned to infiltrate German Workers’ Party in 1919

  • Rise of Hitler

    • Joined National Socialist German Workers’ Party in 1919, took control by 1921

      • For short, called Nazi Party

    • Hitler begins to gain admiration, 55,000 Nazis, 15,000 in the militia

      • Known as Storm Troops or Brownshirts

    • Admires Mussolini, wants to copy his “March on Rome” in Germany


The rise of nazism

The Rise of Nazism

  • Beer Hall Putsch (1923)

    • Failed march on Munich

    • Hitler is arrested, publishes Mein Kampf

      • Includes anti-Semitic rhetoric, push for Aryan, or super race, of blonde haired/blue eyed people

      • Hitler wanted to create a Third Reich (1st was Holy Roman Empire, 2nd was German Empire of 1871-1918)

  • Nazism

    • Expands Nazi Party across Germany after prison release

      • By 1932, 800,000 strong & largest party in Reichstag, or German parliament

    • Germany has over 6 million unemployed

    • Hitler promises new jobs, a new way of life, and a new Germany


Rise of nazism cont d

Rise of Nazism Cont’d

  • Victory of Nazism

    • Extremist parties gained support, put pressure on gov’t

    • By 1930, the Nazi party was ruling Germany through President Paul von Hindenburg

    • 1933 – Hindenburg steps aside and Hitler becomes chancellor of a new German gov’t

    • March 1933 – Enabling Act passed

      • Gov’t can ignore constitution for 4 years to deal with German issues

      • No need for Reichstag, he is now dictator

    • Jews and democratic supporters thrown out of gov’t, unions dismantled, & all other political parties abolished

    • All who opposed placed in concentration camps

    • Hitler now known as Fuhrer, or leader


The nazi state 1933 1939

The Nazi State, 1933-1939

  • Controlling Germany

    • Schutzstaffeln, or SS was Hitler’s personal body guard

      • Controlled by Heinrich Himmler

      • Became a militia force

    • Concentration camps, mass organizations and spectacles

  • Economics

    • Public works programs and rearmament put the people back to work

      • 1934 – 2.6 million unemployed, 1937 – 500,000

  • Role of Women

    • Seen as bearers of children who would bring about triumph for Aryans

    • Worked in areas away from heavy lifting, hard labor

  • Anti-Semitic Policies

    • 1935 – Nuremberg Laws introduced

      • Excluded Jews from German citizenship

      • Forbade Jewish-German marriages

      • Jews had to wear yellow Stars of David and carry ID

    • November 9, 1938 – Kristallnacht or “Night of Broken Glass”

      • Germans destroy Jewish synagogues and businesses


Nationalism in the middle east

Nationalism in the Middle East

  • Nationalism – pride in your nation

    • Helps revolutions

    • Hurts b/c of rivalries it develops

  • Ottoman Empire

    • British incited rebellion during WWI

      • Lawrence of Arabia

    • Britain and France divided lands in Middle East

  • Turkey

    • Only former Ottoman territory not controlled by Allies

    • Kemal Ataturk, or “Father Turk” turned Turkey into a modern state

    • Modeled after Western democracies


Nationalism in the middle east cont d

Nationalism in the Middle East Cont’d

  • Iran

    • 1925 – Reza Shah Pahlavi conquers Persia

      • Models gov’t after Turkey

    • 1935 – Territory becomes known as Iran

  • Arab Mandates

    • Early 1920s Ibn Saud began fighting to remove European presence

      • Established Saudi Arabia in 1932

    • Soon oil is struck, wealth is in the future for the nation

  • Palestine

    • Constant fighting between Jews and Muslims

      • Large influx of Jews during WWII escaping Hitler

    • Balfour Declaration promised a future Jewish country


Nationalism in africa

Nationalism in Africa

  • Post-WWI

    • German colonies divided by Allies

    • Europeans exploited colonies through taxation and stripping of resources

    • Resistance was met with force

  • New Leaders

    • Call for Pan-Africanism, or the unification of all Africans

    • W.E.B. DuBois& Marcus Garvey in the US pushed for more education, opportunities for Africans

    • Despite movements, colonialism in Africa would not end until after WWII


Nationalism in asia

Nationalism in Asia

  • India

    • MohandasMahatma (“Great Soul”) Gandhi preached civil disobedience

      • Refusal to obey laws considered to be unjust

      • Led to several arrests of Gandhi

    • Following violent displays of power, British begin to give rights to Indians

  • Japan

    • Powerful industrial companies held influence over the country

      • Zaibatsu – large financial & industrial corporation

      • Led to economic inequalities, crisis during Great Depression

    • Japan began to follow path of militarism and imperialism

      • Invasion of Manchuria

    • By late 1930s, military leaders ruled Japan, pushed away from West


Chaos in china

Chaos in China

  • A Communist Alliance

    • Chinese Communist Party (1921) founded by Beijing University staff members in Shanghai

    • 1923 – CCP joined Sun Yat-sen’sNationalist Party, works to take out imperialists

      • Sun Yat-sendies in 1925, succeeded by Chiang Kai-shek

    • 1926 – Formed a Revolutionary Army, take South China within months

    • 1927 – Shanghai Massacre – Chiang turns on CCP, massacres thousands

    • 1928 – Chiang begins new dynasty, tries to unify China


Chaos in china cont d

Chaos in China cont’d

  • The Long March

    • Communists, under Mao Zedong, go into hiding

      • Begin using guerilla tactics to fight Nationalists

    • Cornered, Mao’s troops began a 6,000 mile march to the nearest Communist stronghold

      • 90,000 troops begin, 9,000 finish

  • Chiang Kai-shek’s China

    • Chiang begins programs to modernize the country

    • Encouraged Western influence

    • Public works programs initiated

    • Still faced concerns from Japan


Nationalism in latin america

Nationalism in Latin America

  • U.S. in L.A.

    • 1920s – US eclipses Britain as biggest presence in LA

    • US military force prevalent

    • 1933 – FDR issues Good Neighbor Policy, ending military presence in LA

  • Authoritarianism

    • Argentina

      • HipolitoIrigoyen

    • Brazil

      • Getulio Vargas

    • Mexico

      • Lazaro Cardenas


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