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Scramble for Africa. Why Africa?. Interest in Africa did not start until mid 1800’s Industrialization led to increased need for raw materials and fine goods (ex. Rubber, ivory, gold, diamonds) Unexplored central regions (ex.Congo) became hotbeds for debate

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Why Africa?

  • Interest in Africa did not start until mid 1800’s

  • Industrialization led to increased need for raw materials and fine goods (ex. Rubber, ivory, gold, diamonds)

  • Unexplored central regions (ex.Congo) became hotbeds for debate

  • King Leopold II and Belgium contested Congo region with Portugal

  • International disputes over Africa led to the brink of war



Berlin Conference

  • November 1884- February 1885

  • Called to help end disputes between countries by orderly “carving up” Africa

  • Attended by a representative from all European countries other than Switzerland

  • United States sent a representative

  • No African attendees


Berlin Conference...

  • Called to order by Otto von Bismarck

  • Led to creation of “Berlin Act of 1885”

  • Opened free trade in Congo River Basin = HISTORIC AGREEMENT

  • Agreed to attempt ending slavery


Berlin Act

Chap. II   Documents relative to the Slave Trade

IX. ............the Powers which do or shall exercise sovereign rights or influence in the territories forming the .. basin of the Congo declare that these territories may not serve as a market or means of transit for the trade in slaves, of whatever race they may be. Each of the Powers binds itself to employ all the means at its disposal for putting an end to this trade and for punishing those who engage in it.


Outcomes

  • Portugal lost most (besides Africans!)

  • Germany won most by gaining land in East Africa

  • World War II helped lead to the end of imperialism

  • It was not until the 1960’s that imperialism/ colonialism ultimately ended


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