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Follow along on the Yellow Note Sheet as we examine Protist Classification in more detail as well as some of the diseases that can be caused by Protists:. Kingdom Protista Classification. Animal-like Protists Plant–like Protists Fungus-like Protists. Animal-Like Protists are called:.

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Kingdom protista classification

Follow along on the Yellow Note Sheet as we examine Protist Classification in more detail as well as some of the diseases that can be caused by Protists:

Kingdom Protista Classification

Animal-like Protists

Plant–like Protists

Fungus-like Protists


Animal like protists are called
Animal-Like Protists are called:

  • Protozoans and are typically divided into 4 separate phyla

We mentioned these 4 animal-like protist phyla on the introduction notes, but now we will look into these 4 phyla in more detail on the following slides:


Phylum

Phylum

Sarcodina


Unique sarcodina characteristics
Unique Sarcodina Characteristics:

This is an ameba using cytoplasmic streaming to surround and engulf some food.

  • Contain about 40,000 species

  • Have flexible cell membranes

  • Pseudopodia for movement and feeding

  • Pseudopodia form when the cytoplasm moves

  • Ameboid movement also called (cytoplasmicstreaming)

  • When food is surrounded =endocytosis

  • When waste leaves the cell =exocytosis

  • Organelles that expel fluid from the cell are called contractile vacuoles


Sarcodina diseases benefits facts
Sarcodina Diseases, Benefits, Facts:

What organ of the human body did we just say this amoeba affects? How?

  • Entamoebahistolytica is one of a number of species of small amoebae which live in the alimentary canal of humans. These are usually harmless protozoa, feeding on bacteria and particles in the intestine. In certain conditions, Entamoeba invades the wall of the intestine or rectum causing ulceration and bleeding, with pain, vomiting and diarrhea, symptoms of amoebic dysentery.

Here is the Entamoeba histolytica


Sarcodina protists
SarcodinaProtists:

What is this ameba doing? What other protist does it look like the ameba is eating?

Notice how the cytoplasmic streaming creates a diverse array of ameba shapes


Phylum1

Phylum

Ciliophora


Unique ciliophora characteristics

Can you find all these eukaryotic cell parts on this paramecium?

Unique Ciliophora Characteristics:

  • Contain about 8,000 species

  • Posses Cilia for movement

  • Pellicle = protein surround cell membrane

  • Oral groove = funnel shaped depression

  • Mouth pore = where food enters

  • Gullet = where food vacuoles are created

  • Anal pore = where wastes exit

  • Macronucleus = operates as the director of cell activities

  • Micronucleus = helps with the exchange of DNA during conjugation


Reproduction by conjugation
Reproduction by paramecium?Conjugation

A type of Sexual reproduction where there is an exchange of genetic information!


Reproduction by binary fission asexual
Reproduction by paramecium?Binary Fission(asexual)


Ciliophora diseases
Ciliophora paramecium? Diseases:

  • Balantidium coli is the only species that affects humans. Normal habitat is the intestines of hogs.


Ciliophora diseases1
Ciliophora paramecium? Diseases:

  • Ichthyophthiriusmultifiliisa parasitic ciliate, causes white spot disease in freshwater fish by attaching to the fish’s skin and feeding on the fish. The wound left can become infected and cause death.


Ciliophora protists
Ciliophora paramecium? Protists:

What structures allow this paramecium to move and obtain food?


Paramecium caudatum
Paramecium caudatum paramecium?


Phylum2

Phylum paramecium?

Zoomastigina(zooflagellate)


Unique zoomastigina characteristics
Unique paramecium?Zoomastigina Characteristics:

  • Contain about 2,500 species

  • Have one or more flagella for movement


Zoomastigina diseases
Zoomastigina paramecium? Diseases:

Here is the trypanosoma protist in a blood smear

  • Trypanosoma causes African sleeping sickness. Transmitted by the Tetse fly causes fever, lethargy, mental deterioration and coma.


Zoomastigina diseases1
Zoomastigina paramecium? Diseases:

  • Trypanosomacruz causes Chagas’ disease (when bitten by the “kissing bug” and causes fever and severe heart damage.)


Zoomastigina diseases2
Zoomastigina paramecium? Diseases:

  • Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmaniadonoviana and is transmitted by the Sand fly. It is a blood disease with skin sores.


Zoomastigina diseases3
Zoomastigina paramecium? Diseases:

Can you trace the infectious cycle?

  • The ProtistGiardia lamblia causes guardiasis which causes diarrhea and severe cramps. It is spread by animals and picked up by humans in contaminated drinking water.


Phylum3

Phylum paramecium?

Sporozoa(commonly called Apicomplexa)


The Apicomplexa — also called Apicomplexia — are a large group of parasitic protists, most of which possess a unique organelle, a type of plastid called an apicoplast, and an apical complex structure involved in penetrating a host's cell.


Unique sporozoa characteristics
Unique group of Sporozoa Characteristics:

  • Contain about 6,000 species

  • No means of locomotion, but rather are parasitic and live in the blood and tissue of the host

Who is an obvious vector (transmitter) of the Sporozoan?


Sporozoan diseases
Sporozoan group of Diseases:

  • The best known sporozoan is Plasmodium, which enters a human when bitten by an infected Anopheles mosquito and causes Malaria

  • Toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite found in birds, rodents, & cats.

Infects red blood cells and release toxins


Ii plant like protists are called algae
II. Plant-like Protists are called Algae group of

  • Range in size from unicellular to large seaweeds

  • Considered autotrophic since they have chloroplasts

  • Thallus= body portion of an alga


There are 4 main algae types
There are 4 main algae types: group of

Now you know about both phytoplankton AND zooplankton. What is the difference?

Can you find them both in this food chain picture?

  • 1. Most unicellular algae are Phytoplankton, which are photosynthetic, one celled organisms that form the base of the food chain.


  • 2. group of Colonial algae are groups of algae cells acting in a coordinated manner

Volvox colonies with daughter colonies inside.


  • 3. group of Filamentous algae have a slender, rod shaped Thallus


  • 4. group of Multi-cellular algae have large, complex Thallus (almost leaf-like)

Seaweed



Plant like protist examples
Plant-like Protist examples: group of

  • Seaweed

  • Euglena


  • Diatoms group of

    When diatoms die, they slowly sink to the seabed. The buildup of trillions of these shells forms a crumbly white sediment known as diatomaceous earth or diatomite, which is used in manufacturing pool filters and abrasives, including toothpaste.

  • Dinoflagellates

Dinoflagellates color the water in a British Columbia bay.


Iii fungus like protists
III. Fungus-like Protists group of

  • Characteristics:

    • Eukaryotic

    • Multi-cellular

    • Heterotrophic


Classification of fungus like protists
Classification of Fungus-like Protists: group of

  • Slime Molds

  • Water Molds


Water molds
Water group of Molds

  • The potato blight caused the Irish Potato Famine in 1845-49 which, it is estimated, caused over 1,000,000 to starve to death and forced a further 2,000,000 to emigrate.


There are two important phyla (divisions) of water molds, the chytrids (Chytridiomycota) and the oomycetes (Oomycota).

  • The chytrids live in salt- and freshwater and in moist soil. They live as saprobes, obtaining their metabolic energy from decaying plant and animal material, or as parasites , attacking plants, fungi, and algae


  • The the chytrids (Chytridiomycota) and the oomycetes (Oomycota).oomycetes resemble fungi, taking the form of coenocytic filaments (hyphae). They differ from fungi, however, in that cellulose is present in their cell walls.

These are oospores of the plant pathogenic oomycete (water mold) Phytophthoria sojae. This fungus-like microbe causes a serious root and stem rot disease of soybeans.


End of p rotist notes chapter 21
End of the chytrids (Chytridiomycota) and the oomycetes (Oomycota).Protist notes chapter 21

  • Now you will look at a pond water sample to locate and draw some of these microscopic protists


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