Kingdom protista
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Kingdom Protista. Classified into 3 main groups Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs Protozoa (“Animal-like”)…Motile Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments. General Characteristics. Unicellular Eukaryotic. Algaelike “Plant-like”.

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Kingdom Protista

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Kingdom protista

Kingdom Protista

Classified into 3 main groups

Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs

Protozoa (“Animal-like”)…Motile

Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments


General characteristics

General Characteristics

  • Unicellular

  • Eukaryotic


Algaelike plant like

Algaelike“Plant-like”

  • - All members are photosynthetic

  • All members contain chlorophyll a

  • many contain accessory pigments

  • classified by colors, method of sugar storage, number of flagella and chemical composition of their cell wall.

  • Some are Freshwater, some are Saltwater


Phylum euglenophyta

Phylum Euglenophyta

1 – 3 flagella

No cell wall – protein pellicle instead

Heterotrophic is required

Some have eyespot for phototaxism


Phylum dinoflagellata dinoflagellates

Phylum DinoflagellataDinoflagellates

2 flagella – 1 posterior, 1 transverse

Some are bioluminescent

Others produce toxins… Red Tide!


Red tide

Red Tide


Phylum chrysophyta diatoms diatoms cell walls are composed of sio 2

Phylum Chrysophyta: Diatoms Diatoms… cell walls are composed of SiO2


Diatom strew

Diatom Strew


Diatoms

Diatoms


Phylum rhodophyta brown algae fucus kelp

Phylum Rhodophyta: Brown Algae… Fucus…kelp


Kingdom protista

Air Bladders:

Used to take blades to the surface for PSN


Phylum rhodophyta red algae coralline

Phylum Rhodophyta:Red Algae…Coralline

Characterized by its phycobilins (red accessory pigments)


Chlorophyta

Chlorophyta

- Ancient lineage to modern plants

- Contain chlorophylls a and b

- Have cellulose cell walls

  • Store sugars as starch

  • can be solitary, filamentous, colonial or bilayered


Phylum chlorophyta green algae

Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae

…unicellular… Chlamydomonas


Phylum chlorophyta filamentous spirogyra spiral shaped chloroplasts

Phylum Chlorophyta: …filamentous… Spirogyra..Spiral-shaped chloroplasts.


Phylum chlorophyta filamentous zygnema 2 star shaped chloroplasts per cells

Phylum Chlorophyta: …filamentous… Zygnema..2 Star-shaped chloroplasts per cells


Phylum chlorophyta volvox mother colony with daughter colonies

Phylum Chlorophyta: … VolvoxMother colony with Daughter colonies.

Mother Colony

Daughter Colony


Phylum chlorophyta bi layered ulva sea lettuce

Phylum Chlorophyta: Bi-layered… Ulva (sea lettuce)


Animal like protists

Animal-like Protists


Phylum sarcodina the amoeba in 3d

Phylum SarcodinaThe Amoeba in 3D


Amoebae surround and engulf their food the process is called phagocytosis

Amoebae surround and engulf their food… the process is called phagocytosis.


An amoeba eating a paramecium

An Amoeba eating a paramecium.


Foraminifera

Foraminifera

  • Tests of CaCO3

  • Found as deposits of ancient sea floor


Phylum sporozoa plasmodium vivax causes malaria

Phylum SporozoaPlasmodium vivax…. Causes Malaria

Plasmodium vivax

Vector: Anopheles Mosquito


Phylum ciliata the ciliates

Phylum Ciliata: The Ciliates

  • Use cilia for locomotion

  • Have mouths (cytopharynx)

  • Have an anus (anal pore)

  • Have Contractile vacuoles

  • Have two types of nuclei

    • One macronuleus--- normal nucleus

    • At least one micronucleus – DNA… for sexual reproduction

      (multimicronucleatum has 8!)


The paramecium use cilia for locomotion

The Parameciumuse cilia for locomotion


3d view

3D view


Sexual reproduction conjugation

Sexual Reproduction: Conjugation

At this level of organization “sexual” reproduction simply involves the exchange of DNA…resulting (of course) with an increased diversity.


Cysts thick walled structures which encase and protect dormant organisms

Cysts(thick-walled structures which encase and protect dormant organisms)

Forming cyst

Cyst


Fungus like

Fungus-like

  • “Fungus” like because they form either

    filaments (hyphae) or spores


Phylum myxomycota cellular slime mold

Phylum MyxomycotaCellular Slime mold

Cellular Slug

Fruiting Body

Aggregation to a slug is triggered by cyclic AMP


Cellular slime mold

Cellular Slime Mold

Exhibit fungus-like characteristics (they’re decomposers) and protozoa-like characteristics (they’re motile)

Life cycle: unicellular Slug


Plasmodial slime mold

Plasmodial Slime Mold

  • Large single, spreading mass

  • Decomposers

  • Reproduces by spores

Plasmodial Sporangia

(spore-producing structures

Plasmodial Slime mold


Kingdom fungi

Kingdom Fungi

The Study of Fungi is called Mycology

What is probably the largest living organism on earth has been discovered in the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon. A fungus living three feet underground is estimated to cover 2,200 acres. After testing samples from various locations, scientists say it is all one organism. Officially known as Armillaria ostoyae, or the honey mushroom, the fungus is 3.5 miles across and takes up 1,665 football fields. The small mushrooms visible above ground are only the tip of the iceberg.

Experts estimate that the giant mushroom is at least 2,400 years old, but could be 7,200 years old.


Characteristics of kingdom fungi

Characteristics of Kingdom Fungi

Be Multicellular, except for Yeasts which are single-celluluar

Have Eukaryotic cells

Be Heterotrophs

Must have cell walls made of Chitin (sugar)

Most fungi are sedentary..(they don’t move around, they live their lives anchored somewhere)

In order to belong to the Kingdom Fungi, organisms must:


Cell walls

Cell Walls

The cell walls of Fungi are made of Chitin (Chitin is a sugar… the same substance which makes up the exoskeleton of insects)

Some fungi have cross walls, or septa, which divide the filaments into compartments having a single nucleus.

septum


Some cells lack septa and are multi nucleated or coenocytic have many nuclei

Some cells lack septa and are multi-nucleated, or coenocytic (have many nuclei)


Kingdom protista

Digestion takes place outside the body (extra-cellular)

Fungi are Absorptive Feeders …they simply ingest (absorb) digested foods thru their cell walls


Facts

Facts

Fungi live and grow in their food

only seen when the fruiting bodies emerge…. By then it’s too late!


Facts1

Facts

Cell Walls are either partial or absent………. The cytosol is circulated through simple cyclosis.


Ecological role

Ecological Role

The major role of Fungi is as Decomposers (they are the great recyclers)…. They are Saprophytes


Fairy ring

Fairy Ring


Fairy ring1

Fairy Ring


The primary structures of a fungi

The Primary Structures of a Fungi

Spores Hypha Mycelium Fruiting Body

(haploid reproductive cell) (a single filament) (a mass of hyphae) (reproductive and dispersion)


Spores haploid reproductive cells

Spores: Haploid Reproductive Cells


Spore with developing hypha some fungi have haustoria hyphae that can penetrate their host

Spore with Developing Hypha**(some fungi have haustoria, hyphae that can penetrate their host)

Spore

Hypha


The hypha begins to branch as it digests its way through the food

The Hypha begins to branch as it digests its way through the food.


A mass of hyphae form the mycelium

A Mass of Hyphae form the Mycelium


The mycelium growth in a petri dish

The Mycelium growth in a Petri Dish


Fungi reproduction

Fungi Reproduction

Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually.

Asexual reproduction includes:

1. fragmentation: the breaking up of hypha

2. budding: the pinching off of a small hypha outgrowth

3. asexual spores: there’s two kinds of asexual spores

a. Sporangiospores are produced by sporangia which are

located on top of a filament called a sporangiophore.

b. Conidia are formed at the tips of specialized hyphae

called conidiophores.

*** Sexual Reproduction occurs through Conjugation.


Asexual spores

Asexual Spores

Sporangium:

Produces the

sporangiospores

Sporangiophore:

Holds up the

sporangium


Asexual spores1

Asexual Spores

The Conidiophores look like tubes… the conidia look like small black dots inside the tubes.


Kingdom protista

Classification of Fungimostly classified by the shape of the “Fruiting Bodies”The “Fruiting Bodies” are the reproductive structures.

Phylum Zygomycota (bread mold)

Phylum Basidiomycota (mushrooms, puff balls, bracket fungi)

Phylum Ascomycota (cup fungi)

Phylum Deuteromycota (Imperfect fungi)


Phylum zygomycota

Phylum Zygomycota

Sporangium:

Produces the spores

Sporangiophore:

Holds up the

sporangium


A nice bowl of mold

A nice bowl of mold


Want an orange zygomycota does

Want an orange ? Zygomycota does !!


Kingdom protista

Many Fungi are involved in Mycorhizzae relationships…Over 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.

  • lack septa

  • don’t produce zygospores


Phylum ascomycota

Phylum Ascomycota

Cup Fungi

Yeast

Mildews

The largest group of fungi

Named for the reproductive sacs or Asci that form near the tips of the hyphae. Ascospores are formed here and released into the air when the ascus ruptures. These spores germinate to form new hyphae.


Cup fungi

Cup Fungi


Phylum basidiomycota

Phylum Basidiomycota

Mushrooms

Puffballs

Shelf (Bracket) Fungi

Underground hyphae intertwine and grow upward to produce a reproductive structure called a basidiocarp. This basidiocarp is what we call a mushroom.

Basidiospores are produced on the basidia, reproductive structures, which are found on the edges of the gills.


Agaricus gills amanita phalloides death cap

Agaricus (gills)Amanita phalloides “Death Cap”


Boletes tubes instead of gills

Boletes: tubes instead of gills


Chanterelles vase shaped

Chanterelles: vase-shaped


Morels

Morels


Puff balls

Puff Balls


Shelf fungi

Shelf Fungi


Kingdom protista

Phylum Deuteromycota

Athlete’s Foot

Ringworm

Penicillium

Called “imperfect” because a sexual reproductive stage has not been observed.


Penicillium source of penicillin

Penicillium: source of penicillin


Athlete s foot

Athlete’s Foot


Athlete s foot1

Athlete’s Foot


Athlete s foot2

Athlete’s Foot


Ringworm

Ringworm


Ringworm1

Ringworm


Ringworm2

Ringworm


Lichens

Lichens

• symbiotic association held in a

hyphae mesh…mutualism!

alga provides food, fungus provides physical environment

•air pollution detection

Lichen has 3 stages of growth

Cructose

Foliose

Fruticose


Crustose

Crustose


Foliose

Foliose


Fruticose

Fruticose


The end

The End


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