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Kingdom Protista. Classified into 3 main groups Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs Protozoa (“Animal-like”)…Motile Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments. General Characteristics. Unicellular Eukaryotic. Algaelike “Plant-like”.

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kingdom protista

Kingdom Protista

Classified into 3 main groups

Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs

Protozoa (“Animal-like”)…Motile

Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments

general characteristics
General Characteristics
  • Unicellular
  • Eukaryotic
algaelike plant like
Algaelike“Plant-like”
  • - All members are photosynthetic
  • All members contain chlorophyll a
  • many contain accessory pigments
  • classified by colors, method of sugar storage, number of flagella and chemical composition of their cell wall.
  • Some are Freshwater, some are Saltwater
phylum euglenophyta
Phylum Euglenophyta

1 – 3 flagella

No cell wall – protein pellicle instead

Heterotrophic is required

Some have eyespot for phototaxism

phylum dinoflagellata dinoflagellates
Phylum DinoflagellataDinoflagellates

2 flagella – 1 posterior, 1 transverse

Some are bioluminescent

Others produce toxins… Red Tide!

slide11

Air Bladders:

Used to take blades to the surface for PSN

phylum rhodophyta red algae coralline
Phylum Rhodophyta:Red Algae…Coralline

Characterized by its phycobilins (red accessory pigments)

chlorophyta
Chlorophyta

- Ancient lineage to modern plants

- Contain chlorophylls a and b

- Have cellulose cell walls

  • Store sugars as starch
  • can be solitary, filamentous, colonial or bilayered
phylum chlorophyta green algae
Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae

…unicellular… Chlamydomonas

phylum chlorophyta filamentous spirogyra spiral shaped chloroplasts
Phylum Chlorophyta: …filamentous… Spirogyra..Spiral-shaped chloroplasts.
phylum chlorophyta volvox mother colony with daughter colonies
Phylum Chlorophyta: … VolvoxMother colony with Daughter colonies.

Mother Colony

Daughter Colony

foraminifera
Foraminifera
  • Tests of CaCO3
  • Found as deposits of ancient sea floor
phylum sporozoa plasmodium vivax causes malaria
Phylum SporozoaPlasmodium vivax…. Causes Malaria

Plasmodium vivax

Vector: Anopheles Mosquito

phylum ciliata the ciliates
Phylum Ciliata: The Ciliates
  • Use cilia for locomotion
  • Have mouths (cytopharynx)
  • Have an anus (anal pore)
  • Have Contractile vacuoles
  • Have two types of nuclei
    • One macronuleus--- normal nucleus
    • At least one micronucleus – DNA… for sexual reproduction

(multimicronucleatum has 8!)

sexual reproduction conjugation
Sexual Reproduction: Conjugation

At this level of organization “sexual” reproduction simply involves the exchange of DNA…resulting (of course) with an increased diversity.

fungus like
Fungus-like
  • “Fungus” like because they form either

filaments (hyphae) or spores

phylum myxomycota cellular slime mold
Phylum MyxomycotaCellular Slime mold

Cellular Slug

Fruiting Body

Aggregation to a slug is triggered by cyclic AMP

cellular slime mold
Cellular Slime Mold

Exhibit fungus-like characteristics (they’re decomposers) and protozoa-like characteristics (they’re motile)

Life cycle: unicellular Slug

plasmodial slime mold
Plasmodial Slime Mold
  • Large single, spreading mass
  • Decomposers
  • Reproduces by spores

Plasmodial Sporangia

(spore-producing structures

Plasmodial Slime mold

kingdom fungi

Kingdom Fungi

The Study of Fungi is called Mycology

What is probably the largest living organism on earth has been discovered in the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon. A fungus living three feet underground is estimated to cover 2,200 acres. After testing samples from various locations, scientists say it is all one organism. Officially known as Armillaria ostoyae, or the honey mushroom, the fungus is 3.5 miles across and takes up 1,665 football fields. The small mushrooms visible above ground are only the tip of the iceberg.

Experts estimate that the giant mushroom is at least 2,400 years old, but could be 7,200 years old.

characteristics of kingdom fungi
Characteristics of Kingdom Fungi

Be Multicellular, except for Yeasts which are single-celluluar

Have Eukaryotic cells

Be Heterotrophs

Must have cell walls made of Chitin (sugar)

Most fungi are sedentary..(they don’t move around, they live their lives anchored somewhere)

In order to belong to the Kingdom Fungi, organisms must:

cell walls
Cell Walls

The cell walls of Fungi are made of Chitin (Chitin is a sugar… the same substance which makes up the exoskeleton of insects)

Some fungi have cross walls, or septa, which divide the filaments into compartments having a single nucleus.

septum

slide41
Digestion takes place outside the body (extra-cellular)

Fungi are Absorptive Feeders …they simply ingest (absorb) digested foods thru their cell walls

facts
Facts

Fungi live and grow in their food

only seen when the fruiting bodies emerge…. By then it’s too late!

facts1
Facts

Cell Walls are either partial or absent………. The cytosol is circulated through simple cyclosis.

ecological role
Ecological Role

The major role of Fungi is as Decomposers (they are the great recyclers)…. They are Saprophytes

the primary structures of a fungi
The Primary Structures of a Fungi

Spores Hypha Mycelium Fruiting Body

(haploid reproductive cell) (a single filament) (a mass of hyphae) (reproductive and dispersion)

spore with developing hypha some fungi have haustoria hyphae that can penetrate their host
Spore with Developing Hypha**(some fungi have haustoria, hyphae that can penetrate their host)

Spore

Hypha

fungi reproduction
Fungi Reproduction

Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually.

Asexual reproduction includes:

1. fragmentation: the breaking up of hypha

2. budding: the pinching off of a small hypha outgrowth

3. asexual spores: there’s two kinds of asexual spores

a. Sporangiospores are produced by sporangia which are

located on top of a filament called a sporangiophore.

b. Conidia are formed at the tips of specialized hyphae

called conidiophores.

*** Sexual Reproduction occurs through Conjugation.

asexual spores
Asexual Spores

Sporangium:

Produces the

sporangiospores

Sporangiophore:

Holds up the

sporangium

asexual spores1
Asexual Spores

The Conidiophores look like tubes… the conidia look like small black dots inside the tubes.

slide56
Classification of Fungimostly classified by the shape of the “Fruiting Bodies”The “Fruiting Bodies” are the reproductive structures.

Phylum Zygomycota (bread mold)

Phylum Basidiomycota (mushrooms, puff balls, bracket fungi)

Phylum Ascomycota (cup fungi)

Phylum Deuteromycota (Imperfect fungi)

phylum zygomycota
Phylum Zygomycota

Sporangium:

Produces the spores

Sporangiophore:

Holds up the

sporangium

slide61

Many Fungi are involved in Mycorhizzae relationships…Over 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.

  • lack septa
  • don’t produce zygospores
phylum ascomycota
Phylum Ascomycota

Cup Fungi

Yeast

Mildews

The largest group of fungi

Named for the reproductive sacs or Asci that form near the tips of the hyphae. Ascospores are formed here and released into the air when the ascus ruptures. These spores germinate to form new hyphae.

phylum basidiomycota
Phylum Basidiomycota

Mushrooms

Puffballs

Shelf (Bracket) Fungi

Underground hyphae intertwine and grow upward to produce a reproductive structure called a basidiocarp. This basidiocarp is what we call a mushroom.

Basidiospores are produced on the basidia, reproductive structures, which are found on the edges of the gills.

slide74
Phylum Deuteromycota

Athlete’s Foot

Ringworm

Penicillium

Called “imperfect” because a sexual reproductive stage has not been observed.

lichens
Lichens

• symbiotic association held in a

hyphae mesh…mutualism!

alga provides food, fungus provides physical environment

•air pollution detection

Lichen has 3 stages of growth

Cructose

Foliose

Fruticose

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