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Kingdom Protista. Classified into 3 main groups Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs Protozoa (“Animal-like”)…Motile Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments. General Characteristics. Unicellular Eukaryotic. Algaelike “Plant-like”.

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Kingdom protista

Kingdom Protista

Classified into 3 main groups

Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs

Protozoa (“Animal-like”)…Motile

Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments


General characteristics
General Characteristics

  • Unicellular

  • Eukaryotic


Algaelike plant like
Algaelike“Plant-like”

  • - All members are photosynthetic

  • All members contain chlorophyll a

  • many contain accessory pigments

  • classified by colors, method of sugar storage, number of flagella and chemical composition of their cell wall.

  • Some are Freshwater, some are Saltwater


Phylum euglenophyta
Phylum Euglenophyta

1 – 3 flagella

No cell wall – protein pellicle instead

Heterotrophic is required

Some have eyespot for phototaxism


Phylum dinoflagellata dinoflagellates
Phylum DinoflagellataDinoflagellates

2 flagella – 1 posterior, 1 transverse

Some are bioluminescent

Others produce toxins… Red Tide!



Phylum chrysophyta diatoms diatoms cell walls are composed of sio 2
Phylum Chrysophyta: Diatoms Diatoms… cell walls are composed of SiO2





Air Bladders:

Used to take blades to the surface for PSN


Phylum rhodophyta red algae coralline
Phylum Rhodophyta:Red Algae…Coralline

Characterized by its phycobilins (red accessory pigments)


Chlorophyta
Chlorophyta

- Ancient lineage to modern plants

- Contain chlorophylls a and b

- Have cellulose cell walls

  • Store sugars as starch

  • can be solitary, filamentous, colonial or bilayered


Phylum chlorophyta green algae
Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae

…unicellular… Chlamydomonas


Phylum chlorophyta filamentous spirogyra spiral shaped chloroplasts
Phylum Chlorophyta: …filamentous… Spirogyra..Spiral-shaped chloroplasts.


Phylum chlorophyta filamentous zygnema 2 star shaped chloroplasts per cells
Phylum Chlorophyta: …filamentous… Zygnema..2 Star-shaped chloroplasts per cells


Phylum chlorophyta volvox mother colony with daughter colonies
Phylum Chlorophyta: … VolvoxMother colony with Daughter colonies.

Mother Colony

Daughter Colony


Phylum chlorophyta bi layered ulva sea lettuce
Phylum Chlorophyta: Bi-layered… Ulva (sea lettuce)


Animal like protists
Animal-like Protists


Phylum sarcodina the amoeba in 3d
Phylum SarcodinaThe Amoeba in 3D



An amoeba eating a paramecium
An Amoeba eating a paramecium. called phagocytosis.


Foraminifera
Foraminifera called phagocytosis.

  • Tests of CaCO3

  • Found as deposits of ancient sea floor


Phylum sporozoa plasmodium vivax causes malaria
Phylum called phagocytosis.SporozoaPlasmodium vivax…. Causes Malaria

Plasmodium vivax

Vector: Anopheles Mosquito


Phylum ciliata the ciliates
Phylum called phagocytosis.Ciliata: The Ciliates

  • Use cilia for locomotion

  • Have mouths (cytopharynx)

  • Have an anus (anal pore)

  • Have Contractile vacuoles

  • Have two types of nuclei

    • One macronuleus--- normal nucleus

    • At least one micronucleus – DNA… for sexual reproduction

      (multimicronucleatum has 8!)


The paramecium use cilia for locomotion
The Paramecium called phagocytosis.use cilia for locomotion


3d view
3D view called phagocytosis.


Sexual reproduction conjugation
Sexual Reproduction: Conjugation called phagocytosis.

At this level of organization “sexual” reproduction simply involves the exchange of DNA…resulting (of course) with an increased diversity.


Cysts thick walled structures which encase and protect dormant organisms
Cysts called phagocytosis.(thick-walled structures which encase and protect dormant organisms)

Forming cyst

Cyst


Fungus like
Fungus-like called phagocytosis.

  • “Fungus” like because they form either

    filaments (hyphae) or spores


Phylum myxomycota cellular slime mold
Phylum Myxomycota called phagocytosis.Cellular Slime mold

Cellular Slug

Fruiting Body

Aggregation to a slug is triggered by cyclic AMP


Cellular slime mold
Cellular Slime Mold called phagocytosis.

Exhibit fungus-like characteristics (they’re decomposers) and protozoa-like characteristics (they’re motile)

Life cycle: unicellular Slug


Plasmodial slime mold
Plasmodial Slime Mold called phagocytosis.

  • Large single, spreading mass

  • Decomposers

  • Reproduces by spores

Plasmodial Sporangia

(spore-producing structures

Plasmodial Slime mold


Kingdom fungi

Kingdom Fungi called phagocytosis.

The Study of Fungi is called Mycology

What is probably the largest living organism on earth has been discovered in the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon. A fungus living three feet underground is estimated to cover 2,200 acres. After testing samples from various locations, scientists say it is all one organism. Officially known as Armillaria ostoyae, or the honey mushroom, the fungus is 3.5 miles across and takes up 1,665 football fields. The small mushrooms visible above ground are only the tip of the iceberg.

Experts estimate that the giant mushroom is at least 2,400 years old, but could be 7,200 years old.


Characteristics of kingdom fungi
Characteristics of Kingdom Fungi called phagocytosis.

Be Multicellular, except for Yeasts which are single-celluluar

Have Eukaryotic cells

Be Heterotrophs

Must have cell walls made of Chitin (sugar)

Most fungi are sedentary..(they don’t move around, they live their lives anchored somewhere)

In order to belong to the Kingdom Fungi, organisms must:


Cell walls
Cell Walls called phagocytosis.

The cell walls of Fungi are made of Chitin (Chitin is a sugar… the same substance which makes up the exoskeleton of insects)

Some fungi have cross walls, or septa, which divide the filaments into compartments having a single nucleus.

septum


Some cells lack septa and are multi nucleated or coenocytic have many nuclei
Some cells called phagocytosis.lack septa and are multi-nucleated, or coenocytic (have many nuclei)


Digestion takes place outside the body called phagocytosis. (extra-cellular)

Fungi are Absorptive Feeders …they simply ingest (absorb) digested foods thru their cell walls


Facts
Facts called phagocytosis.

Fungi live and grow in their food

only seen when the fruiting bodies emerge…. By then it’s too late!


Facts1
Facts called phagocytosis.

Cell Walls are either partial or absent………. The cytosol is circulated through simple cyclosis.


Ecological role
Ecological Role called phagocytosis.

The major role of Fungi is as Decomposers (they are the great recyclers)…. They are Saprophytes


Fairy ring
Fairy Ring called phagocytosis.


Fairy ring1
Fairy Ring called phagocytosis.


The primary structures of a fungi
The Primary Structures of a Fungi called phagocytosis.

Spores Hypha Mycelium Fruiting Body

(haploid reproductive cell) (a single filament) (a mass of hyphae) (reproductive and dispersion)



Spore with developing hypha some fungi have haustoria hyphae that can penetrate their host
Spore with Developing called phagocytosis.Hypha**(some fungi have haustoria, hyphae that can penetrate their host)

Spore

Hypha





Fungi reproduction
Fungi Reproduction food.

Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually.

Asexual reproduction includes:

1. fragmentation: the breaking up of hypha

2. budding: the pinching off of a small hypha outgrowth

3. asexual spores: there’s two kinds of asexual spores

a. Sporangiospores are produced by sporangia which are

located on top of a filament called a sporangiophore.

b. Conidia are formed at the tips of specialized hyphae

called conidiophores.

*** Sexual Reproduction occurs through Conjugation.


Asexual spores
Asexual Spores food.

Sporangium:

Produces the

sporangiospores

Sporangiophore:

Holds up the

sporangium


Asexual spores1
Asexual Spores food.

The Conidiophores look like tubes… the conidia look like small black dots inside the tubes.


Classification of Fungi food.mostly classified by the shape of the “Fruiting Bodies”The “Fruiting Bodies” are the reproductive structures.

Phylum Zygomycota (bread mold)

Phylum Basidiomycota (mushrooms, puff balls, bracket fungi)

Phylum Ascomycota (cup fungi)

Phylum Deuteromycota (Imperfect fungi)


Phylum zygomycota
Phylum Zygomycota food.

Sporangium:

Produces the spores

Sporangiophore:

Holds up the

sporangium



Want an orange zygomycota does
Want an orange ? food.Zygomycota does !!


Many Fungi are involved in Mycorhizzae relationships…Over 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.

  • lack septa

  • don’t produce zygospores


Phylum ascomycota
Phylum Ascomycota 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.

Cup Fungi

Yeast

Mildews

The largest group of fungi

Named for the reproductive sacs or Asci that form near the tips of the hyphae. Ascospores are formed here and released into the air when the ascus ruptures. These spores germinate to form new hyphae.


Cup fungi
Cup Fungi 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Phylum basidiomycota
Phylum Basidiomycota 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.

Mushrooms

Puffballs

Shelf (Bracket) Fungi

Underground hyphae intertwine and grow upward to produce a reproductive structure called a basidiocarp. This basidiocarp is what we call a mushroom.

Basidiospores are produced on the basidia, reproductive structures, which are found on the edges of the gills.


Agaricus gills amanita phalloides death cap
Agaricus (gills) 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.Amanita phalloides “Death Cap”


Boletes tubes instead of gills
Boletes: tubes instead of gills 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Chanterelles vase shaped
Chanterelles: vase-shaped 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Morels
Morels 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Puff balls
Puff Balls 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Shelf fungi
Shelf Fungi 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Phylum Deuteromycota 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.

Athlete’s Foot

Ringworm

Penicillium

Called “imperfect” because a sexual reproductive stage has not been observed.


Penicillium source of penicillin
Penicillium: source of penicillin 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Athlete s foot
Athlete’s Foot 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Athlete s foot1
Athlete’s Foot 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Athlete s foot2
Athlete’s Foot 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Ringworm
Ringworm 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Ringworm1
Ringworm 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Ringworm2
Ringworm 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Lichens
Lichens 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.

• symbiotic association held in a

hyphae mesh…mutualism!

alga provides food, fungus provides physical environment

•air pollution detection

Lichen has 3 stages of growth

Cructose

Foliose

Fruticose


Crustose
Crustose 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Foliose
Foliose 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


Fruticose
Fruticose 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


The end
The End 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.


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