Kingdom protista
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Kingdom Protista. Classified into 3 main groups Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs Protozoa (“Animal-like”)…Motile Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments. General Characteristics. Unicellular Eukaryotic. Algaelike “Plant-like”.

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Kingdom Protista

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Kingdom Protista

Classified into 3 main groups

Algae-like (”Plant-like”)… are Photosynthetic autotrophs

Protozoa (“Animal-like”)…Motile

Fungus-like… Decomposers….form spores and filaments

General Characteristics

  • Unicellular

  • Eukaryotic


  • - All members are photosynthetic

  • All members contain chlorophyll a

  • many contain accessory pigments

  • classified by colors, method of sugar storage, number of flagella and chemical composition of their cell wall.

  • Some are Freshwater, some are Saltwater

Phylum Euglenophyta

1 – 3 flagella

No cell wall – protein pellicle instead

Heterotrophic is required

Some have eyespot for phototaxism

Phylum DinoflagellataDinoflagellates

2 flagella – 1 posterior, 1 transverse

Some are bioluminescent

Others produce toxins… Red Tide!

Red Tide

Phylum Chrysophyta: Diatoms Diatoms… cell walls are composed of SiO2

Diatom Strew


Phylum Rhodophyta: Brown Algae… Fucus…kelp

Air Bladders:

Used to take blades to the surface for PSN

Phylum Rhodophyta:Red Algae…Coralline

Characterized by its phycobilins (red accessory pigments)


- Ancient lineage to modern plants

- Contain chlorophylls a and b

- Have cellulose cell walls

  • Store sugars as starch

  • can be solitary, filamentous, colonial or bilayered

Phylum Chlorophyta: Green Algae

…unicellular… Chlamydomonas

Phylum Chlorophyta: …filamentous… Spirogyra..Spiral-shaped chloroplasts.

Phylum Chlorophyta: …filamentous… Zygnema..2 Star-shaped chloroplasts per cells

Phylum Chlorophyta: … VolvoxMother colony with Daughter colonies.

Mother Colony

Daughter Colony

Phylum Chlorophyta: Bi-layered… Ulva (sea lettuce)

Animal-like Protists

Phylum SarcodinaThe Amoeba in 3D

Amoebae surround and engulf their food… the process is called phagocytosis.

An Amoeba eating a paramecium.


  • Tests of CaCO3

  • Found as deposits of ancient sea floor

Phylum SporozoaPlasmodium vivax…. Causes Malaria

Plasmodium vivax

Vector: Anopheles Mosquito

Phylum Ciliata: The Ciliates

  • Use cilia for locomotion

  • Have mouths (cytopharynx)

  • Have an anus (anal pore)

  • Have Contractile vacuoles

  • Have two types of nuclei

    • One macronuleus--- normal nucleus

    • At least one micronucleus – DNA… for sexual reproduction

      (multimicronucleatum has 8!)

The Parameciumuse cilia for locomotion

3D view

Sexual Reproduction: Conjugation

At this level of organization “sexual” reproduction simply involves the exchange of DNA…resulting (of course) with an increased diversity.

Cysts(thick-walled structures which encase and protect dormant organisms)

Forming cyst



  • “Fungus” like because they form either

    filaments (hyphae) or spores

Phylum MyxomycotaCellular Slime mold

Cellular Slug

Fruiting Body

Aggregation to a slug is triggered by cyclic AMP

Cellular Slime Mold

Exhibit fungus-like characteristics (they’re decomposers) and protozoa-like characteristics (they’re motile)

Life cycle: unicellular Slug

Plasmodial Slime Mold

  • Large single, spreading mass

  • Decomposers

  • Reproduces by spores

Plasmodial Sporangia

(spore-producing structures

Plasmodial Slime mold

Kingdom Fungi

The Study of Fungi is called Mycology

What is probably the largest living organism on earth has been discovered in the Malheur National Forest in eastern Oregon. A fungus living three feet underground is estimated to cover 2,200 acres. After testing samples from various locations, scientists say it is all one organism. Officially known as Armillaria ostoyae, or the honey mushroom, the fungus is 3.5 miles across and takes up 1,665 football fields. The small mushrooms visible above ground are only the tip of the iceberg.

Experts estimate that the giant mushroom is at least 2,400 years old, but could be 7,200 years old.

Characteristics of Kingdom Fungi

Be Multicellular, except for Yeasts which are single-celluluar

Have Eukaryotic cells

Be Heterotrophs

Must have cell walls made of Chitin (sugar)

Most fungi are sedentary..(they don’t move around, they live their lives anchored somewhere)

In order to belong to the Kingdom Fungi, organisms must:

Cell Walls

The cell walls of Fungi are made of Chitin (Chitin is a sugar… the same substance which makes up the exoskeleton of insects)

Some fungi have cross walls, or septa, which divide the filaments into compartments having a single nucleus.


Some cells lack septa and are multi-nucleated, or coenocytic (have many nuclei)

Digestion takes place outside the body (extra-cellular)

Fungi are Absorptive Feeders …they simply ingest (absorb) digested foods thru their cell walls


Fungi live and grow in their food

only seen when the fruiting bodies emerge…. By then it’s too late!


Cell Walls are either partial or absent………. The cytosol is circulated through simple cyclosis.

Ecological Role

The major role of Fungi is as Decomposers (they are the great recyclers)…. They are Saprophytes

Fairy Ring

Fairy Ring

The Primary Structures of a Fungi

Spores Hypha Mycelium Fruiting Body

(haploid reproductive cell) (a single filament) (a mass of hyphae) (reproductive and dispersion)

Spores: Haploid Reproductive Cells

Spore with Developing Hypha**(some fungi have haustoria, hyphae that can penetrate their host)



The Hypha begins to branch as it digests its way through the food.

A Mass of Hyphae form the Mycelium

The Mycelium growth in a Petri Dish

Fungi Reproduction

Fungi reproduce both sexually and asexually.

Asexual reproduction includes:

1. fragmentation: the breaking up of hypha

2. budding: the pinching off of a small hypha outgrowth

3. asexual spores: there’s two kinds of asexual spores

a. Sporangiospores are produced by sporangia which are

located on top of a filament called a sporangiophore.

b. Conidia are formed at the tips of specialized hyphae

called conidiophores.

*** Sexual Reproduction occurs through Conjugation.

Asexual Spores


Produces the



Holds up the


Asexual Spores

The Conidiophores look like tubes… the conidia look like small black dots inside the tubes.

Classification of Fungimostly classified by the shape of the “Fruiting Bodies”The “Fruiting Bodies” are the reproductive structures.

Phylum Zygomycota (bread mold)

Phylum Basidiomycota (mushrooms, puff balls, bracket fungi)

Phylum Ascomycota (cup fungi)

Phylum Deuteromycota (Imperfect fungi)

Phylum Zygomycota


Produces the spores


Holds up the


A nice bowl of mold

Want an orange ? Zygomycota does !!

Many Fungi are involved in Mycorhizzae relationships…Over 90% of plants have fungi associated with their roots. Fungi absorb and concentrate minerals for delivery to the plant roots. In return, the fungus receives sugars synthesized by the plant.

  • lack septa

  • don’t produce zygospores

Phylum Ascomycota

Cup Fungi



The largest group of fungi

Named for the reproductive sacs or Asci that form near the tips of the hyphae. Ascospores are formed here and released into the air when the ascus ruptures. These spores germinate to form new hyphae.

Cup Fungi

Phylum Basidiomycota



Shelf (Bracket) Fungi

Underground hyphae intertwine and grow upward to produce a reproductive structure called a basidiocarp. This basidiocarp is what we call a mushroom.

Basidiospores are produced on the basidia, reproductive structures, which are found on the edges of the gills.

Agaricus (gills)Amanita phalloides “Death Cap”

Boletes: tubes instead of gills

Chanterelles: vase-shaped


Puff Balls

Shelf Fungi

Phylum Deuteromycota

Athlete’s Foot



Called “imperfect” because a sexual reproductive stage has not been observed.

Penicillium: source of penicillin

Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s Foot





• symbiotic association held in a

hyphae mesh…mutualism!

alga provides food, fungus provides physical environment

•air pollution detection

Lichen has 3 stages of growth







The End

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