IEGR 459: Intro to Logistics Management and Supply Chain
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IEGR 459: Intro to Logistics Management and Supply Chain. Logistics Measures and Considerations. Maintainability System Effectiveness Supply Chain Factors Transportation, Packaging and Handling Factors. Sept. 19, 2011 Fall 2011. Objective of maintainability.

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IEGR 459: Intro to Logistics Management and Supply Chain

Logistics Measures and Considerations

  • Maintainability

  • System Effectiveness

  • Supply Chain Factors

  • Transportation, Packaging and Handling Factors

Sept. 19, 2011

Fall 2011


Objective of maintainability
Objective of maintainability

  • Design and develop systems/equipment which can be maintained

  • in the least time, at the least cost, and with a minimum expenditure of support resources, without adversely affecting the item performance or safety characteristics

    • Maintainability greatly influences reliability and availability of a system or subsystem.

    • Maintainability must be addressed early in the design stage to prevent or reduce failure or down times of the system.


Maintainability definitions
Maintainability Definitions

Maintainability is an inherent design characteristic of a system or product and it pertains to the ease, accuracy, safety, and economy in the performance of maintenance actions.

Maintainability is the probability that a failed system will be restored to specified performance within a stated period of time when maintained under specified conditions.

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Maintainability metrics
Maintainability Metrics

Times

MTTR : Mean Time to Repair

T5o% : Median Time to Repair

TMAX : Maximum Time to Repair

(usually 95th percentile

LDT : Logistics Delay Time

SDT : Supply Delay Time

MDT : Mean Down Time

DTM : Down Time for Maintenance

DTS : Down Time For Supply

Events

MTBM : Mean Time Between Maintenance

MTTPM : Mean Time to Preventive Maintenance

MTBPM : Mean Time Between Preventive Maintenance

Manpower

CS : Crew Size

MMH/FH : Man-hours per flight hour

Diagnostics

FD : Fault Detection

FI : Fault Isolation

FA : False Alarms

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Maintenance categories
Maintenance Categories Metrics

Maintenance

Preventive Maintenance(retain item functionality)

Corrective Maintenance(reestablish item functionality)

  • Failure detection

  • Failure isolation

  • Repair

  • Functional test

  • Test of all relevant functions,

  • Inspect to detect hidden failures

  • Service to replace consumables

  • Activities to compensate for drift andto reduce wear out failures

    • Overhaul to increase useful life

    • Time Change

    • Prognostics health management: monitor and repair before failure

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Maintenance categories1
Maintenance Categories Metrics

  • Mct – Mean Corrective-maintenance time

    • Arithmetic average maintenance corrective cycle times

    • Equivalent to MTTR.

  • Probability functions for repair time

    • Normal distribution

    • Exponential distribution

    • Log-normal Distribution

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Maintainability measure
Maintainability Measure Metrics

Example:

Figures of Histogram and Frequency Polygon of maintenance actions

9


Maintainability measure1
Maintainability Measure Metrics

Example:

10


Normal distribution of repair times
Normal distribution of repair times. Metrics

Example: Convert maintenance times of 40 and 50 mins into standard (Z)



Mean Preventive Maintenance time (Mpt) Metrics

Mpt – Mean or average elapsed time for performing preventative

or scheduled maintenance of an item.

Mpt = ∑(fpti)(Mpti)

∑fpti

fpti = Frequency of the individual (ith) preventative

maintenance actions per system hour

Mpti= elapsed time required for the ith preventative

maintenace action


Mean Preventive Maintenance time (Mpt) Metrics

Mpt – Mean or average elapsed time for performing preventative

or scheduled maintenance of an item.

Mpt = ∑(fpti)(Mpti)

∑fpti

fpti = Frequency of the individual (ith) preventative

maintenance actions per system hour

Mpti= elapsed time required for the ith preventative

maintenace action


Median active corrective maintenance time Metrics

The median maintenance time is that value that divides all the downtime values so that 50% are equal to or less than the median and 50% are equal to or greater than the median. The median will usually give the best average location of the data sample. The median for a normal distribution is the same as the mean; the median in a log-normal distribution is the same as the geometric mean (MTTRg)


Median active preventive maintenance time Metrics

The median preventative maintenance time is that value that divides all the downtime values so that 50% are equal to or less than the median and 50% are equal to or greater than the median.


Mean active maintenance time (M). Metrics

Mean active maintenance time (M). M is the mean or average elapsed time required to perform scheduled (preventive) and unscheduled (corrective) maintenance. It excludes logistics delay time and administrative delay time.


Maximum active corrective maintenance time Metrics(Mmax)

Mmax can be defined as that value of maintenance downtime below which a specified percentage of all maintenance actions can be expected to be completed. Mmax is related primarily to the log-normal distribution, and the 90th or 95th percentile point is generally taken as the specified value


More Definitions Metrics

Logistics delay time LDT - -Logistics delay time is the maintenance downtime that is expended as a result of waiting for a spare part to become available, waiting for necessary test equipment to perform maintenance. waiting for transportation, waiting to use a facility required for maintenance, and so on. LDT does not include active maintenance time but does constitute a major element of total maintenance downtime (MDT).

Administrative delay time (ADT). Administrative delay time refers to that portion of downtime during which maintenance is delayed for reasons of an administrative nature: personnel assignment priority, labor strike, organizational constraint, and so on. ADT does not include active maintenance time but often constitutes a significant element of total maintenance downtime (MDT).

Maintenance downtime (MDT). Maintenance downtime constitutes the total elapsed time required (when the system is not operational) to repair and restore a system to full operating status and/or to retain a system in that condition. MDT includes mean active maintenance time (M) , logistics delay time (LDT), and administrative delay time (ADT). The mean or average value is calculated from the elapsed times for each function


Other Maintenance Measures Metrics

  • Maintenance Labor hours (MLH)

    • MLH per System Operating hours (OH)

    • MLH per cycle of system operation

    • MLH per month

    • MLH per maintenance action

  • Maintenance Frequency

    • Mean time between maintenance (MTBM)

    • Mean time between replacement (MTBR)

  • Maintenance Cost factors

    • Cost per maintenance action ($/MA)

    • $/OH

    • $/month

    • $/mission

    • Ratio of maintenance cost to total life-cycle cost





Availability
Availability and factors.

Availability – The probability or the percentage that a system will be ready or available when required for use and be able to complete its overall mission in a satisfactory manner

  • inherent Availability – probability that a system or equipment, when used under stated conditions in an ideal support environment (i.e., readily available tools, spare: maintenance personnel, etc.), will operate satisfactorily at any point in time as required. It excludes preventive or scheduled maintenance actions, logistics delay time and administrative delay time

Up-Time

Up-Time + Down-Time

A =


  • Achieved availability - and factors.the probability that a system or equipment, when used under stated conditions in an ideal support environment (i.e., readily available tools, spares, personnel, etc.), will operate satisfactorily at any point in time. Achieved availability includes preventative maintenance and excludes logistics delay time and administrative delay time

  • Operational availability - the probability that a system or equipment, when used under stated conditions in an actual operational environment, will operate satisfactorily when called upon.



System effectiveness
System Effectiveness and factors.

System effectiveness - Function of performance (P), Availability (A)

and dependability (D)

SE = (P) (A) (D)

  • Overall equipment effectiveness - Function of performance rate (P), Availability (A)and quality rate (Q)

  • SE = (P) (A) (Q)

    • Availability

    • = (loading time – downtime)/loading time

    • Performance rate

      • = {(output)(Actual time)/(loading time – downtime)} x (idea cycle time)/(actual cycle time)

    • Quality rate (Q)

    • = {input – (Quality defects + Startup defects + rework)}/input


Cost effectiveness
Cost Effectiveness and factors.


Cost effectiveness1
Cost Effectiveness and factors.

  • With respect to availability

  • Cost effectiveness = Availability/ Life-cycle cost

  • With respect to Performance

  • Cost effectiveness = Performance/ Life-cycle cost

  • With respect to Logistics effectiveness

  • Cost effectiveness = Logistics effectiveness/ Life-cycle cost

  • Cost effectiveness with respect to overall equipment effectiveness

  • Cost effectiveness with respect to facility space


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