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Memory & Intelligence. Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D. Infant intelligence & Memory. Historically, we have seriously underestimated infant’s abilities. Why? Definition of Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior. Results from experience. Types of Learning. Habituation

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Memory intelligence

Memory & Intelligence

Carolyn R. Fallahi, Ph. D.


Infant intelligence memory
Infant intelligence & Memory

  • Historically, we have seriously underestimated infant’s abilities. Why?

  • Definition of Learning: A relatively permanent change in behavior. Results from experience.


Types of learning
Types of Learning

  • Habituation

  • Dishabituation

  • Measures of habituation and dishabituation predict intelligence in childhood.


Types of learning1
Types of Learning

  • Classical Conditioning

  • Operant conditioning

  • Social Learning


Infant memory
Infant Memory

  • Babies tend to remember things that give them pleasure.


Memory
Memory

  • Encoding

  • Storage

  • Retrieval

  • Short-term memory


Memory1
Memory

  • Memory Span: a method for assessing the capacity of memory.

    • 2 digits: 2-3 year olds

    • 5 digits: 7 year old children

    • 61/2 digits: 7-13 year olds

    • Memory Span: a method for assessing the capacity of memory.

    • Adults: 7 bits of information


Children s memory
Children’s memory

  • Memory studies on children have shown that memory for children begins at 3 months old.

  • Infantile amnesia: Cannot remember memories prior to 3 years old.

  • False Memories

  • Implicit Memories

  • Explicit memories


Infant s memory
Infant’s Memory

  • Research done by Carolyn Rouie-Collier

    • Infant’s memory of a mobile conscious?

    • Do infants acquire the ability to consciously remember the past?

    • A study on 2 1/2 month olds


More studies on infant memory
More studies on infant memory

  • 7 month infants will search for an object shown to him/her.

  • A young infant will not.

  • When does conscious memory develop?


Melzoff deferred imitation
Melzoff & deferred imitation

  • Deferred imitation: imitation that occurs after a time delay, or hours or days.

  • Meltzoff demonstrated that 9 month old infants could imitate actions they had seen performed 24 hours earlier.


Problem solving babies
Problem Solving & Babies

  • Babies also show the ability to perform problem-solving and solve complex problems.

  • How does a child so young have this ability? The answer lies in understanding intelligence.


Intelligence
Intelligence

  • The ability to perform goal-oriented behavior that is conscious and deliberate and adaptive.

  • To be able to identify and solve problems.

  • Intelligence is the result of genetics and the environment.


History of intelligence
History of Intelligence

  • Alfred Binet

  • If you had to construct an IQ test, what kinds of questions would it contain? What kinds of abilities do you think that you would want to include?

  • Infant Intelligence:

    • Early tests given to babies

    • The Bayley Scales of Infant Development: widely used in assessing infant development.

      • Mental scale

      • Motor scale

      • Infant behavior profile


Binet simon
Binet & Simon

  • Mental Age

  • Assessment: attention, perception, memory, numerical reasoning, verbal comprehension.

  • Piaget: notion of adaptive thinking.

  • “The form of equilibrium adaptation or exchanges between the organism and environment are directed.”


Wechsler
Wechsler

  • “The global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment.”

  • Is there a consensus?


Intelligence tests
Intelligence Tests

  • One Score Tests -

  • Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (ages 2-adult).

  • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children – IV (6-16 years).

  • Wechsler Preschool & Primary Scales of Intelligence – 4-6.5 yeares

  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale – III (16 & older).


Wechsler tests verbal iq
Wechsler Tests: Verbal IQ

  • Verbal IQ: Measures learned/absorbed knowledge; knowledge of history, literary/biological facts; knowledge relating to competent functioning in the world; knowledge of mathematics; knowledge of the meaning of specific words.


Performance iq
Performance IQ

  • Measures unfamiliar tasks

  • Speed is critical

  • Measures on-the-spot analytical thinking

  • Measures how well a person can master new problems

  • IQ measures person’s sanding as compared to a reference group


Viq vs piq vs fsiq
VIQ vs. PIQ vs. FSIQ

  • VIQ: measures acquired knowledge, verbal reasoning, attention to verbal materials

  • PIQ: measures fluid reasoning, spatial processing, attentiveness to detail, and visual-motor integration

  • FSIQ: overall summary score – estimates an individual’s general level of intellectual functioning.

  • What does this mean?


Factor analytic approach
Factor Analytic Approach

  • Factor analysis: a statistical procedure for identifying clusters of tests or test items (called factors) that are highly correlated with each other and unrelated to other items.


Standardization
Standardization

  • What does this mean?

  • Lots of people take the test to make sure its reliable and valid.

  • Cultural bias of tests: many have argued that tests were written for white middle class children and they were standardized in that population.

  • Now: Stanford-Binet has been standardized via diverse populations…. But still….


Wais iii standardized sample
WAIS-III Standardized sample

  • 2,450 students

  • 1995 US Census dat

  • Stratified according to age, sex, race/ethnicity, geographic region, and education level.


Iq range classifications
IQ Range Classifications

  • IQ Range Classification

    • 130 & above: Very Superior

    • 120-129: Superior

    • 110-119: High Average

    • 90-109: Average

    • 80-89: Low Average

    • 70-79: Borderline

    • 69 & below: Extremely Low


Diagnostic issues with intelligence
Diagnostic Issues with Intelligence

  • The issue of extreme scores

  • Diagnosis of Gifted and Talented

  • Diagnosis of Mental Retardation

    • IQ Classification

    • 50-69: Mild

    • 35-49: Moderate

    • 20-34: Severe

    • Below 20: Profound


Other types of tests
Other Types of Tests

  • Achievement Tests – The Woodcock Johnson

  • Aptitude Tests


Self righting tendency
Self-righting tendency

  • Given a favorable environment, infants generally follow normal developmental patterns unless they have suffered severe damage.


Important issues with intelligence tests
Important Issues with Intelligence Tests

  • Standardization

  • Cultural Bias

  • Not all average IQ kids are alike

  • Low IQ kids


Theories of intelligence
Theories of Intelligence

  • Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence

    • What is intelligence? Adaptation to one’s environment.

    • Assesses analytical, creative, & practical tests


Horn cattell
Horn & Cattell

  • What is intelligence? A description of thinking & capabilities. This is a description of abilities.

  • 9 broad abilities

    • Fluid Reasoning

    • Acculturation Knowledge

    • Short-term apprehension retention or STM

    • Fluency of retrieval from LT storage or LTM

    • Visual Processing


Horn cattell1
Horn & Cattell

  • Auditory Processing

  • Processing Speed

  • Correct decision speed

  • Quantitative Knowledge


Evidence that this theory has merit
Evidence that this theory has merit

  • Developmental studies

  • Research on the aged

  • Studies on achievement

  • Neurological evidence

  • Heritability studies

    • Outlines for different intelligences can be seen in early childhood. Why? Separate genetic determiners and separate environment. Determiners.


Horn cattell s biggest contribution fluid v crystallized intelligence
Horn & Cattell’s biggest contribution: Fluid v. Crystallized intelligence

  • Fluid intelligence

  • Crystallized intelligence


Theory of multiple intelligences
Theory of Multiple Intelligences Crystallized intelligence

  • Gardner: Multiple Intelligences

  • Surveyed atypical populations & found jagged cognitive profiles.

  • These profiles are inconsistent with unitary view of intelligence.

  • Theory came from atypical populations

    • Prodigies

    • Idiot savants

    • Autistic children

    • LD children

    • Question: does training in 1 area influence skills in other areas. For example, does math training affect musical ability?


Gardner 1993
Gardner (1993) Crystallized intelligence

  • Linguistic intelligence – word smart

  • Logical-mathematical intelligence – number/reasoning smart

  • Spatial intelligence- picture smart

  • Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence – body smart

  • Musical intelligence – music smart

  • Interpersonal intelligence – people smart


Gardner
Gardner Crystallized intelligence

  • Inrapersonal intelligence – self smart

  • Naturalistic intelligence – nature smart


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