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Selecting, Defining, and Measuring Behavior. Week 2: Seeing is Believing. Behavioral Assessment. Comprehensive multi-method of data collection to identify and define behavioral targets for change. Purposes of Behavioral Assessment. Screening

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behavioral assessment
Behavioral Assessment
  • Comprehensive multi-method of data collection to identify and define behavioral targets for change
purposes of behavioral assessment
Purposes of Behavioral Assessment
  • Screening
  • Defining problems and/or desired achievement criteria
  • Pinpointing target behavior to be treated
  • Monitoring Progress
  • Follow up
consider social significance of the behavior
Consider Social Significance of the Behavior
  • Habilitation?
    • Maximize Reinforcement & minimize Punishment
  • Prerequisite to learning New behavior?
  • Increase Access to learning new behavior?
  • Facilitate Social Interaction?
    • Getting rid of aggression, increasing compliments
social significance considerations
Social Significance Considerations
  • Behavioral Cusp?
    • Reading
  • Pivotal Behavior?
    • Response Class
  • Age appropriate
    • Playing with a doll
  • Is this a real behavior of interest?
    • On Task, Losing Weight?
  • Replacement behavior needed?
prioritizing behaviors
Prioritizing Behaviors
  • Danger to self or other
  • How “severe”?
  • How long has the problem been occurring?
  • Increase higher rates of R+?
  • Relative Importance?
  • Reduce Negative Social Interaction?
  • Behavior Produce R+ for others?
  • Likelihood of change?
    • Lit., experience, environment, resources?
  • How much will it cost?
  • SEE Figure 3.5 on prioritizing potential target behaviors
methods of assessment
Methods of Assessment
  • RIOT
    • Record Review
    • Interviews/Checklists
    • Observations
    • Tests
record review
Record Review
  • School Record
  • Permanent Products
    • Work Samples
  • Report Cards
determining whether permanent product is appropriate
Determining Whether Permanent Product Is Appropriate
  • Is real time measurement needed?
  • Can the Behavior Be measured by Permanent Product?
  • Will obtaining contrived (if planned; e.g. tape recording) permanent product affect behavior?
  • How much will it cost?
interviews
Interviews
  • Reliability is a concern
  • Can be used to generate hypotheses
  • Get direct data (i.e. independent observation) to corroborate
interviews continued
Interviews Continued
  • What, When, where and How questions? No WHY?
    • What does the behavior look like?
    • When does it occur?
    • What happens before the behavior?
    • What happens after the behavior?
    • Where does the behavior occur?
    • Who is around?
    • What gets the behavior to stop?
    • When is the behavior likely NOT to occur?
    • How long does the behavior occur?
    • How frequently does the behavior occur?
rating scales checklists
Rating Scales & Checklists
  • More reliable than verbal report
  • Used only as a “screener”
  • DO NOT USE ALONE FOR INTERVENTION OR DIAGNOSIS!
    • E.g. Behavioral Assessment System for Children
    • E.g. Diagnostic Inventory System for Children
    • E.g. RCMAS, CDI,
observations
Observations
  • This is not an anecdotalreport of what someoneobserved for a class period
general guidelines for observations
General guidelines for observations:
  • Don’t be intrusive.
  • Agree upon a clearly defined and observable behavior first.
  • Observe across days/times/settings to increase reliability.
  • Use with other forms of assessment to increase validity.
  • Carefully consider the goal of the observation before selecting an observation tool.
  • Always note the environmental context of the behavior.
  • Observe students in their natural environments.
  • Always observe peers for a comparison.
  • TRY TO REDUCE REACTIVITY!
observation systems
Observation “Systems”
  • Save your money
  • Very limited
  • Use direct behavioral systematic observation methods
direct behavioral observations
Direct Behavioral Observations
  • ABC Log’s
  • Frequency Tabulation Log’s
  • Systematic Interval Recording
examples of direct observations
Examples of Direct Observations

ABC Recording

  • Antecedents - what occurs right before the behavior.
  • Behavior - problem behavior (observable and defined)
  • Consequences - what happens right after the behavior
advantages of abc log
Advantages of ABC Log
  • Frees up Practitioner
  • Allows for measurement that is inconvenient or inaccessible
  • May be more accurate/complete
examples of direct observations1
Examples of Direct Observations

Frequency Count (RATE MEASURE!)

  • A measure of how often a clearly defined behavior occurs within a given period of time.
  • Examine the frequency of the behavior by tallying or counting the behavior as it occurs.
  • Use this when the behavior is discrete (has an obvious beginning and ending) and does not occur at very high rates.
  • This information is helpful at ALL steps of the problem solving process
  • ALWAYS MEASURE AS RATE WHEN POSSIBLE!!!!
examples of direct observations2
Examples of Direct Observations

Systematic Data Recording

  • Examine percentage of target behavior by:
    • Recording when the selected student is engaging in target behavior during 10-second intervals for 15 minutes.
    • Peers are observed in the same way as a comparison.
  • Requires more training than the other observation tools.
  • This information is helpful at all steps of the problem solving process
systematic direct behavioral observations interval recording
Systematic Direct Behavioral Observations: Interval Recording
  • Partial Interval Recording: Occurs anytime within interval
  • Whole Interval Recording: Occurs majority of Interval
  • Momentary Time Sampling: Within 3 seconds
    • Planned Activity Check: Frequency count of students at moment
  • Duration Recording: How long behavior occurs
slide24

Target Child

Composite Child

measurement issues
Measurement Issues
  • Frequency
    • Rate when possible
    • If acquisition both accuracy and error rates
  • Duration
    • Total
    • Per Occurrence
  • Latency: S to R
    • Interresponse Time: R to R
  • Intensity
derived definitional measures
Derived & Definitional Measures
  • Percentages
    • 40% of intervals observed
  • Trials to Criterion
    • 10 consecutive correct trials
  • Topography: Form/Shape
  • Magnitude: Force/Intensity
psychometrics of behavioral measurement
Psychometrics of Behavioral Measurement
  • Validity
  • Reliability
  • Accuracy
how to maximize valid and accurate data collection
How to maximize valid and accurate data collection
  • Measure behavior continuously
  • Measure behavior the same time/place across observations
  • Measure with solid “system”
  • Train observers then train them again later
  • Minimize reactivity
  • Assess Accuracy of Measurement: Answer Key
  • Assess Reliability: IOA on 25-33% of sessions
    • 80-90%
ioa event recording
IOA: Event Recording
  • Total Count:
    • (Smaller/Larger ) x 100
  • Mean Count Per interval
    • ( N IOA)/ n intervals
  • Exact Count Per Interval
    • (# Intervals of 100% IOA)/(n intervals)
  • Trial by Trial
    • (# Trials with Agreements/ Total number of Trials) x 100%
ioa timing
IOA: Timing
  • Total Duration
    • (Shorter Duration/Longer Duration) x 10
  • Mean Duration
    • (IOA Rn/ N responses )* 100
ioa interval recording
IOA: Interval Recording
  • Interval by Interval
    • (Agreements/Agreements + Disagreements) *100%
  • Scored Interval
    • Calculate only when one of the two scorers scored something
  • Unscored Interval
    • Calculate only when one of the two scorers scored something Did not occur
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