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Reptiles : Alligators & Crocodiles Snakes & Iguanas Sea Turtles PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Reptiles : Alligators & Crocodiles Snakes & Iguanas Sea Turtles. Pgs 5-77 thru 5-80. Reptile Characteristics. Ecothermic vertebrates Breathe with lungs Skin made of scales (no hair; no feathers) 3 chambered heart Internal fertilization; lay eggs with soft shells

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Reptiles : Alligators & Crocodiles Snakes & Iguanas Sea Turtles

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Reptiles: Alligators & CrocodilesSnakes & IguanasSea Turtles

Pgs 5-77 thru 5-80


Reptile Characteristics

  • Ecothermic vertebrates

  • Breathe with lungs

  • Skin made of scales (no hair; no feathers)

  • 3 chambered heart

  • Internal fertilization; lay eggs with soft shells

    • 1st to see Amniotic Egg

    • A thin, membranous, fluid-filled sac surrounding an embryo which keeps the embryo from drying out.

    • Reptiles, birds, & Mammals

  • Offspring look like its parents

  • Examples: alligators, crocodiles, turtles, lizards, & snakes


Order Crocodilia

  • Salt Water Crocodile

    • Grow to 20 feet

    • Can live in the ocean, but primarily estuaries

  • American Alligator

    • largest reptile in N. America.

    • grow to be 6’-19’.

    • found in Coastal N. Carolina to Florida, along the southern coast of Texas, and North to SE Oklahoma and Arkansas.

Crocodile

Alligator


How can you tell the difference?

Similar…

Difference…

  • Alligators-rounded snout

  • Crocodile’s mouth is more pointed (triangular shape) & its teeth are visible.

  • both very large reptiles.

  • Live near fresh water

  • When there is a drought an alligator is known to dig a deep hole or “den”,

    • provides water for the wildlife around them.


Order Squamata

  • Sea Snakes

  • Have flattened tail to swim

  • breathe air

  • Can remain underwater for hours

  • Venomous

    • Hunt small fish

    • Not a major threat to humans b/c fangs are small & back of mouth; less territorial than terrestrial

    • Can be fatal unless given antivenin


Order Squamata

  • Marine Iguana

  • Live in the Galapagos island

  • Herbivore

  • Live & forage under water

  • Salt glands on nose to eliminate excess salt


Marine Iguana Podcast

  • http://education.eol.org/podcast/marine-iguana

  • (~5 min)

  • 1. What eats a marine iguana?

  • 2. How do they know when the predator is coming?

  • 3. What were the observations made by scientists between iguanas and mockingbirds?


Order Chelonia

  • 7 species of marine turtles

    • 5 common to Florida

      • Leatherback

      • Green

      • Loggerhead

      • Hawksbill

      • Kemps Ridley

      • Olive Ridley

      • Flatback.

  • Note * Olive ridley & Flatback turtles not seen in Florida.

  • All live in warm waters


Sea Turtle Nesting

  • Females return to same the same beach biannually for nesting

    • only during the summer months

  • Dig a hole in the sand using front flippers

    • ~100 ping-pong sized eggs laid/ nest

  • Nest temperature determines sex of hatchlings

    • Warmer- females

    • Cooler- males

  • Incubation is approximately 2 months

  • Hatching & emergence can take a couple of days (2 to 3 days)

  • 1 in 1,000 eggs will survive to adults


Marine Turtle Adaptations

  • Legs

    • Modified flippers

    • Move in water & on land

  • Beaks- no teeth

  • Can hold breath for up to 3 days by slowing heart rate

  • Papillae in esophagus

    • White teeth like structures

    • Help keep the food down in the stomach.


Adaptations continued…

  • Shell

    • Carapace (top )

    • made up of bony plates

    • covered by a layer of scales called scutes

    • Plastron (bottom)

    • Provides Protection

    • Excrete excess salt through tear ducts (Lacrimal Gland)


Named for it’s abnormally large head.

Avg. adult weight is 275 lbs

Heart shaped carapace

reddish brown on top & creamy yellow underneath

5 lateral scutes

Has two claws on each front flipper

Diet: clams, crabs and other armored animals.

A slower swimmer, it can fall prey to sharks but can travel great distances quickly

1. Loggerhead Turtles


Where in FL Can You Find a Loggerhead Sea turtle?

  • Only species of sea turtle not to be listed as endangered

    • List as threatened

  • Most common species found in FL

  • Approximately 15,000 females nesting here annually

Other Florida Counties

South Florida Counties


2. Green Turtle

  • Named for their green body fat

  • Were valued for their meat, hide, eggs and “calipee”

    • used for green turtle soup.

  • Diet: vegetarian species

  • Habitat: shallow flats & sea grass meadows

  • Approx 100-1000 Green turtles nest on FL beaches annually


Green Turtle

  • 4 lateral scutes

  • 1 claw on each front flipper

  • Avg adult weight is 350 lbs

  • Oval shaped carapace

    • olive-brown with darker streaks

    • plastron is yellow


3. Leatherbackmarine giants

  • Avg 6 feet in length

  • weigh btwn 500- 1500 lbs

  • Carapace is made up of leathery skin (not bony scutes)

    • 5 ridges

  • Black with white, pink and blue highlights in color

  • No claw on front flippers


Nomads of the Sea

  • Diet: soft-bodied animals (jellyfish)

    • Use teeth-like Papillae to hold onto food

  • Rare to FL

    • Only 30-60 females nest in Fl a year

  • Able to dive 3,000 feet below

  • Can travel 3000 miles away from their nesting beaches

  • They regulate their own body temperature to live in varying global conditions


Named after their raptor-like jaw

Diet: sponges.

Adults weigh bwtn 100-200lbs & are 30 inches long

Habitat: lagoons, reefs, bays, & estuaries

Atlantic, Pacific, & Indian Oceans

Common in Fl. Keys

4. Hawksbill Turtles


Hawksbill

  • Carapace is shaded with black & brown markings on an amber background

    • Overlapping scutes

    • 4 lateral scutes

  • Curved beak with distinct overbite

  • 2 claws on front flippers


Hawksbill Hazard’s

  • The shell is used to make jewelry, hair decorations and other ornaments


Named for Richard M. Kemp

a fisherman who submitted the type specimen from Florida

The rarest and most endangered sea turtle in the world

Avg size is 85-100 lbs

2 to 2.5 feet in carapace length

Diet: crabs & other crustaceans

Captive breeding attempts for this species not a viable option

5. Kemp’s Ridley


Arribadas

  • Synchronized nesting habits of Ridley turtles

    • Turtles mate offshore

    • Females nest 3x per season on the beaches

    • Mating/nesting continues for a week or so

    • Triggered by the moon? Pheromones?


Human impacts to Sea turtles…

  • All are endangered or threatened

    • 1. Habitat degradation

      • Sea walls & development of houses/hotels

      • Affects nests

    • 2. Pollution – oil spills; plastic bags


Human impact continued…

  • 3. Bycatch & entanglement


  • 4. Hunting

    • Eggs harvested/poached

    • Shells used in jewerly & decor

  • 5. Light Pollution

    • Turtle look for the moon light over water

    • Hatch and move toward higher ground due to lights on houses


What can we do?

  • Turtle Exclusion Devices (TEDs)

    • Trapdoors allow larger animals to push themselves out of the net

    • Only marginally effects the success of the net

  • ~ 11,000 turtles estimated to have been killed annually in nets prior to TEDs

  • Kemp’s Ridleys were hardest hit

    • Nesting activities have increased since TEDs use


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